Died on December 18

768 Winibald abbot of the Benedictine double monastery of Heidenheim am Hahnenkamm. Traditionally, he is called the brother of Saint Willibald and Saint Walpurga
821 Theodulf of Orléans a writer, poet and the Bishop of Orléans during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. He was a key member of the Carolingian Renaissance and an important figure during the many reforms of the church under Charlemagne, as well as almost certainly the author of the Libri Carolini, "much the fullest statement of the Western attitude to representational art that has been left to us by the Middle Ages". He is mainly remembered for this and the survival of the private oratory or chapel made for his villa at Germigny-des-Prés, with a mosaic probably from about 806
1075 Edith of Wessex a Queen of England. Her husband was Edward the Confessor, whom she married on 23 January 1045. Unlike most English queens in the 10th and 11th centuries, she was crowned, The principal source on her life is a work she herself commissioned, the Vita Ædwardi Regis or the Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster, which is inevitably biased
1133 Hildebert a French writer and ecclesiastic. His name is also spelled Hydalbert, Gildebert, or Aldebert
1290 Magnus III of Sweden King of Sweden from 1275 until his death in 1290.
1385 Bernabò Visconti an Italian soldier and statesman, who was Lord of Milan.
1406 Çandarlı Ali Pasha the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 until 1406, under sultan Bayezid I and, during the Ottoman Interregnum, Süleyman Çelebi.
1415 Louis Dauphin of France Duke of Guyenne a younger son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. He was the third child of his parents to hold the title Dauphin of France, holding it from the death of his older brother in 1401, when he was likewise made Duke of Guyenne
1452 John VII Count of Harcourt a French nobleman. He was Count of Aumale, Viscount of Châtellerault, and Seigneur of Mézières, of Elbeuf, of Lillebone, of La Saussaye etc
1495 Alfonso II of Naples King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem. As Duke of Calabria he was a patron of Renaissance poets and builders during his tenure as the heir to the throne of Naples
1542 Solomonia Saburova the first wife of Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy. She was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Sofia of Suzdal
1575 Marcin Bielski a Polish chronicler and satirical poet. He was born of noble parentage on the patrimonial estate of Biała, Pajęczno County , in the Polish province of Sieradz. The name Wolski is derived from his estate at Wola. One of two Polish writers of the same name, he was the first to use the Polish language, hence his designation as the father of Polish prose
1577 Anna of Saxony the heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes, eldest daughter of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. Maurice's only son, Albert, died in infancy. Anna was the second wife of William the Silent
1591 Marigje Arriens an alleged Dutch witch and one of the more known victims of the witch hunt in the Netherlands.
1651 Francisco de Melo a Portuguese nobleman and general.
1679 John Frederick Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, from 1665 until his death.
1692 Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff a member of a German noble family, which took its name from the village of Seckendorf between Nuremberg and Langenzenn.
1713 Frederick Henry Duke of Saxe-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt a German prince of the House of Wettin.
1737 Antonio Stradivari an Italian luthier and a crafter of string instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars, violas, and harps. Stradivari is generally considered the most significant and greatest artisan in this field. The Latinized form of his surname, Stradivarius, as well as the colloquial, "Strad", is often used to refer to his instruments. It is estimated that he made 1,000 to 1,100 instruments and that around 650 of these instruments survive, including 450 to 512 violins
1751 Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer a Bohemian architect of the Baroque era. He was the fifth son of the German architect Christoph Dientzenhofer and a Bohemian mother and a member of the well known Dientzenhofer family of architects. As an architect he co-operated with his father and with Jan Santini Aichel
1771 Philip Miller an English botanist of Scottish descent.
1787 Soame Jenyns an English writer.
1795 Damaskin (Rudnev) a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, appointed the Orthodox Church Bishop of Nizhny Novgorod province, the diocese of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas. A prominent specialist in the study of early texts, bibliographer and scholar
1799 Jean-Étienne Montucla a French mathematician.
1803 Johann Gottfried Herder a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism
1805 Gennaro Astarita an Italian composer, mainly of operas. The place of his birth is unknown, although he was active in Naples for many years. He began his operatic career in 1765, collaborating with Niccolò Piccinni in the writing of the opera L'orfana insidiata. He became the maestro di cappella in Naples in 1770. He is also considered to have played an important role in the development of opera in Russia. He first visited the country in 1781 and by 1784 he had become the director of Moscow's Petrovsky Theatre. In 1794, Prince Nicolai Yusupov, who at the time was the director of the Imperial Theatres in St Petersburg, asked him to bring an Italian opera troupe to the city, which he did in 1796. Astarita ran the troupe until 1799. Amongst the singers he recruited was Teresa Saporiti, who had created the role of Donna Anna in Mozart's Don Giovanni
1809 Alexander Adam a Scottish teacher and writer on Roman antiquities.
1818 Louis Augustus Karl Frederick Emil Duke of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen.
1826 Iolo Morganwg an influential Welsh antiquarian, poet, collector, and literary forger. He was widely considered a leading collector and expert on medieval Welsh literature in his day, but after his death it was revealed that he had forged a large number of his manuscripts. Regardless, he had a lasting impact on Welsh culture, seen most notably in his foundation of the Gorsedd, and the philosophy he developed in his forgeries had a huge impact on the early neo-druid movement. His bardic name is Welsh for "Iolo of Glamorgan". Iolo is the diminutive of "Iorwerth", a Welsh name often seen as equivalent to "Edward", although neither name is a translation of the other
1829 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology
1831 Willem Bilderdijk Dutch poet, the son of an Amsterdam physician. When he was six years old an accident to his foot incapacitated him for ten years, and he developed habits of continuous and concentrated study. His parents were ardent partisans of the House of Orange-Nassau, and Bilderdijk grew up with strong monarchical and Calvinistic convictions
1832 Philip Freneau an American poet, nationalist, polemicist, sea captain and newspaper editor sometimes called the "Poet of the American Revolution".
1842 Giuseppe Nicolini (composer) an Italian composer who wrote at least 45 operas. From 1819 onwards, he devoted himself primarily to religious music. He was born and died at Piacenza
1843 Thomas Graham 1st Baron Lynedoch a Scottish aristocrat, politician and British Army officer. After his education at Oxford, he inherited a substantial estate in Scotland was married and settled down to a quiet career as a landowning gentleman. However, with the death of his wife, when he was aged 42, he immersed himself in a military career, during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars
1848 Wilhelm Ferdinand Erichson a German entomologist.
1848 Jean Corbineau a French cavalry general of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. His two brothers Claude and Hercule also fought in both these wars and together the three men were known as "les trois Horaces"
1848 Bernard Bolzano a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
1854 Pierre-Marie-François Baour-Lormian a French poet and writer. He wrote under the names Pierre-Marie-François Baour-Lormian, Louis-Pierre-Marie-François, Pierre-Marie-François-Louis or Pierre-Marie-Louis Baour-Lormian
1855 Samuel Rogers an English poet, during his lifetime one of the most celebrated, although his fame has long since been eclipsed by his Romantic colleagues and friends Wordsworth, Coleridge and Byron. His recollections of these and other friends such as Charles James Fox are key sources for information about London artistic and literary life, with which he was intimate, and which he used his wealth to support. He made his money as a banker and was also a discriminating art collector
1862 Barbara Fritchie a Unionist during the Civil War. She was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and married John Casper Fritchie, a glove maker, on May 6, 1806
1865 Thomas Corwin a politician from the state of Ohio who served as a prosecuting attorney, a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. Corwin was the 15th Governor of Ohio, 20th Secretary of the Treasury and United States Ambassador to Mexico
1869 Louis Moreau Gottschalk an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano works. He spent most of his working career outside of the United States
1869 Sergey Durov a Russian poet, translator, writer, and political activist. A member of the Petrashevsky Circle and later the leader of his own underground group of intellectuals, Durov was arrested in 1849, spent 8 months in the Petropavloskaya Fortress, followed by 4 years in Omsk prison
1875 Sebastián Ágreda served briefly as President of Bolivia, from June 10 to July 9, 1841. In addition to these 29 days as President, he also held a number of other governmental roles as well as being a prominent figure in the Bolivian military
1877 Philipp Veit a German Romantic painter. To Veit is due the credit of having been the first to revive the almost forgotten technique of fresco painting
1877 Charles Clark (governor) Governor of Mississippi from November 16, 1863 until May 22, 1865.
1878 Mohammed bin Thani the second emir of the whole Qatari Peninsula, following his predecessor, his father, Sheikh Thani bin Mohammed Al Thamir. He is known for being the father of Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani, the founder of Qatar and who fended off the Ottoman army in the late 19th century
1879 Tēvita ʻUnga the first Crown Prince and Prime Minister of Tonga.
1880 Michel Chasles a French mathematician.
1888 Antun Mažuranić Croatian writer and linguist.