Born on December 19

1343 William I Margrave of Meissen Margrave of Meissen. His surname is related to the legend that Saint Benno appeared to him because of his disputes with the Church in a dream and he had an eye gouged out
1498 Andreas Osiander a German Lutheran theologian.
1538 Jan Zborowski a Polish Court Hetman of the Crown, royal secretaty of Zygmunt II August and Lord Kasztelan of Gniezno.
1554 Philip William Prince of Orange the eldest son of William the Silent by his first wife Anna van Egmont. He became Prince of Orange in 1584 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1599
1587 Dorothea Sophia Abbess of Quedlinburg Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg.
1671 Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Electress of Saxony from 1694 to 1727 and titular Queen of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1697 to 1727 as the wife of Augustus II the Strong. Not once throughout the whole of her thirty-year queenship did she set foot in Poland, instead living in Saxony in self-imposed exile. Born a German margravine, she was called Sachsens Betsäule, "Saxony's pillar of prayer", by her Protestant subjects for her refusal to convert to Catholicism and her loyalty to the Protestant faith. Despite the allegiance of Christiane Eberhardine and her mother-in-law, Anna Sophie of Denmark, to Lutheranism, her husband and son, later Augustus III, both became Catholics
1676 Louis-Nicolas Clérambault a French musician, best known as an organist and composer. He was born and died in Paris
1683 Philip V of Spain King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death.
1695 Jacob de Wit a Dutch artist and interior decorator who painted many religious scenes.
1699 William Bowyer (printer) an English printer.
1714 John Winthrop (educator) the 2nd Hollis Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Harvard College. He was a distinguished mathematician, physicist and astronomer, born in Boston, Mass. His great-great-grandfather, also named John Winthrop, was founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He graduated in 1732 from Harvard, where, from 1738 until his death he served as professor of mathematics and natural philosophy. Professor Winthrop was one of the foremost men of science in America during the 18th century, and his impact on its early advance in New England was particularly significant. Both Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Thompson probably owed much of their early interest in scientific research to his influence. He also had a decisive influence in the early philosophical education of John Adams, during the latter's time at Harvard. He corresponded regularly with the Royal Society in London—as such, one of the first American intellectuals of his time to be taken seriously in Europe. He was noted for attempting to explain the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 as a scientific—rather than religious—phenomenon, and his application of mathematical computations to earthquake activity following the great quake has formed the basis of the claim made on his behalf as the founder of the science of seismology. Additionally, he observed the transits of Mercury in 1740 and 1761 and journeyed to Newfoundland to observe a transit of Venus. He traveled in a ship provided by the Province of Massachusetts - probably the first scientific expedition ever sent out by any incipient American state
1723 Susanne von Klettenberg a German abbess and writer. She was a friend of Katharina Elisabeth Goethe, the mother of writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Klettenberg corresponded with Goethe, and he shaped a character, "Beautiful Soul," after her in his novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
1731 Thomas Willing an American merchant, a Delegate to the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania and the first president of the First National Bank of the United States.
1744 Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel a cadet member of the house of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general field marshal. Brought up with relatives at the Danish court, he spent most of his life in Denmark, serving as royal governor of the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein from 1769 to 1836
1746 Venanzio Rauzzini an Italian castrato, composer, pianist, singing teacher and concert impresario. As a boy he was a member of the Sistine Chapel Choir and was a pupil of Domenico Corri and Muzio Clementi. He also studied with Giuseppe Santarelli in Rome and Nicola Porpora in Naples
1751 Giuseppe Giordani an Italian composer, mainly of opera.
1755 Richard Arkwright junior the financier of Samuel Oldknow of Marple and Mellor and a personal friend. His son Captain Arkwright married Francis Kemble, daughter of the theatre manager Stephen Kemble
1769 David Alopaeus an Imperial Russian diplomat. He followed his older brother Maximilian von Alopaeus into a diplomatic career. He was enrolled at the Military Academy in Stuttgart from 1781 to 1785. He studied at the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen. He was the Imperial Russian ambassador to Stockholm from 1803, and took part in the negotiations for the Peace of Fredrickshamn in 1809. He was granted a title of count along with the coat of arms in 1820 in Congress Poland for his negotiations on Congress Poland's borders with Kingdom of Prussia
1771 Nicolas Joseph Maison a Marshal of France and Minister of War.
1778 Marie Thérèse of France the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
1779 Albine de Montholon a French noblewoman, and the wife of Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon. She was reputed to be the mistress of Napoleon during his exile on Saint Helena
1781 Rudolph Suhrlandt a German portrait painter and lithographer.
1782 Julius Vincenz von Krombholz a physician and mycologist born in Oberpolitz , northern Bohemia.
1783 Charles Julien Brianchon a French mathematician and chemist.
1788 Sergey Volkonsky a Russian Major General and Decembrist from the aristocratic Volkonsky family.
1790 William Parry (explorer) an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer. His 1819 voyage through the Parry Channel was probably the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875–1876
1792 Hendrik Potgieter a Voortrekker leader. He served as the first head of state of Potchefstroom from 1840 and 1845 and also as the first head of state of Zoutpansberg from 1845 to 1852
1796 Manuel Bretón de los Herreros a Spanish dramatist, educated at Madrid. Enlisting on 24 May 1812, he served against the French in Valencia and Catalonia, and retired with the rank of corporal on 8 March 1822. He obtained a minor post in the civil service under the liberal government, and on his discharge determined to earn his living by writing for the stage
1799 Christian Friedrich Neue a German classical philologist.
1802 Stephan Schulzer von Müggenburg a Hungarian – Croatian army officer and mycologist. His first name is variably spelled Stefan Stjepan or István
1809 Pierre-Joseph van Beneden a Belgian zoologist and paleontologist.
1813 Nelson Dewey a politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin; he was the first Governor of Wisconsin, serving from 1848 until 1852.
1814 Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies Grand Duchess of Tuscany from 1833 to 1859 as the consort of Leopold As other women of her family, she was always called Maria Antonietta, a more common and graceful form of Maria Antonia, and she always signed with this name.
1814 Edwin M. Stanton an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. He also organized the manhunt for Lincoln's killer, John Wilkes Booth
1816 Franz Sacher an Austrian-Jewish confectioner, best known as the inventor of the world-famous chocolate cake, the Sachertorte.
1817 James J. Archer a lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican-American War. He later served as a Brigadier General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War
1817 Leopold Heinrich Fischer a German zoologist and mineralogist. He was the son of d’Aloys Fischer. He studied medicine at Fribourg-en-Brisgau but also at Vienna. Fischer practised medicine in Freiburg-in-Brisgau and from 1845 taught zoology and mineralogy there. Initially an assistant, he became a professor in 1859. His most significant works are:
1817 Charles Dancla a French violinist, composer and teacher.
1819 James Spriggs Payne served as the fourth and eighth President of Liberia, from 1868 to 1870 and from 1876 to 1878. He was the last President to belong to Liberia's Republican Party
1824 Hercules Robinson 1st Baron Rosmead a British colonial administrator who became the 5th Governor of Hong Kong and subsequently, the 14th Governor of New South Wales. From June 1859 until August 1896, he was known as Sir Hercules Robinson
1825 George Frederick Bristow an American composer. He advocated American classical music, rather than favoring European pieces. He was famously involved in a related controversy involving William Henry Fry and the New York Philharmonic Society
1828 Anton Janežič a Carinthian Slovene linguist, philologist, author, editor, literary historian and critic.
1830 Daniil Mordovtsev a Russian/Ukrainian writer and historian.
1831 Bernice Pauahi Bishop a philanthropist and aliʻi. Her estate was the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaiʻi, comprising approximately 9% of Hawaii's total area. The revenues from these lands are used to operate the Kamehameha Schools, which were established in 1887 according to Pauahi's will. Pauahi was married to businessman and philanthropist Charles Reed Bishop
1838 Darinka Kvekić a Princess consort of Montenegro by her marriage to Danilo I, Prince of Montenegro. She was the first Princess consort of Montenegro
1841 Nikolai Leykin a Russian writer, artist, playwright, journalist and publisher.
1842 Luigi Guanella a Catholic priest from Northern Italy. He is the founder of several religious institutes: Daughters of St Mary of Providence, 1890, Servants of Charity in Como on March 24, 1908, with his friends David Albertario and Giuseppe Toniolo, and the Pious Union of St Joseph in 1914 with his supporter and first member Pope Pius He was sensitive to the needs of the poor and this gave birth to his religious communities who provide for their needs throughout the world. The Servants of Charity motto reads In Omnibus Charitas – In all things Love
1845 Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin a French astronomer. Some sources give his middle name as Athanase
1849 Henry Clay Frick an American industrialist, financier, and art patron. He founded the C. Frick & Company coke manufacturing company, was chairman of the Carnegie Steel Company, and played a major role in the formation of the giant U.S. Steel steel manufacturing concern. He also financed the construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Company, and owned extensive real estate holdings in Pittsburgh and throughout the state of Pennsylvania. He later built the historic neoclassical Frick Mansion and at his death donated his extensive collection of old master paintings and fine furniture to create the celebrated Frick Collection and art museum. Once known by his critics as "the most hated man in America", named Frick one of the "Worst American CEOs of All Time"
1850 Camille Biot remembered for describing Biot's respiration.