Died on December 2

1198 Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1183. He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion
1242 Al-Mustansir (Baghdad) born in Baghdad on 1192. On his father's death in 1226 he has succeeded his father Az-Zahir as the thirty-sixth Abbasid caliph. Al-Mustansir died on December 2, 1242. His son Al-Musta'sim succeeded him as the caliph
1348 Emperor Hanazono the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318
1381 John of Ruysbroeck one of the Flemish mystics. Some of his main literary works include The Kingdom of the Divine Lovers, The Twelve Beguines, The Spiritual Espousals, A Mirror of Eternal Blessedness, The Little Book of Enlightenment and The Sparkling Stone. Ruysbroeck also wrote letters and short sayings from some of his oral talks have been recorded by certain of his disciples, such as Jan Van Leeuwan. He wrote in the Dutch vernacular, the language of the common people of the Low countries, rather than in Latin, the language of the Church liturgy and official texts, so as to reach a wider audience
1447 Vlad II Dracul a voivode of Wallachia. He reigned from 1436 to 1442, and again from 1443 to 1447. He was the father of Mircea II, Vlad Călugărul , Vlad III Dracula, who became posthumously known by the epithet Țepeș , and Radu III the Beautiful
1455 Isabella of Coimbra a Portuguese infanta and a queen consort of Portugal as the first spouse of King Afonso V of Portugal.
1463 Albert VI Archduke of Austria also known as the Prodigal, from the House of Habsburg was, with his elder brother Emperor Frederick III, an Archduke of Inner Austria from 1424 and of Austria from 1457 until his death. According to tradition, Albert was the exact opposite of Frederick, energetic and inclined to thoughtlessness
1464 Blanche II of Navarre the daughter of John II of Aragon and Blanche I of Navarre. She was also Princess of Asturias by marriage
1469 Piero di Cosimo de' Medici the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance. He was the father of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Giuliano de' Medici
1510 Muhammad Shaybani an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a descendant of Shiban , the fifth son of Jochi,Genghis Khan's eldest son
1515 Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba a Spanish general who fought in the Conquest of Granada and the Italian Wars. He reorganized the emerging Spanish army and its tactics, and was regarded as the "father of trench warfare". He was also called "The Great Captain". Many influential men fought under him , and he was admired by the generation of conquistadors which followed
1547 Hernán Cortés a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas
1560 Georg Sabinus a German poet, diplomat and academic.
1572 Ippolito II d'Este an Italian cardinal and statesman. He was a member of the House of Este, and nephew of the other Ippolito d'Este, also a cardinal. He is perhaps best known for his despoliation of the then 1,400-year-old Hadrian's Villa, built by the Roman emperor Hadrian, removing marbles and statues from it to decorate his own villa, the Villa d'Este
1594 Gerardus Mercator a cartographer, philosopher and mathematician. He is best known for his work in cartography, in particular the world map of 1569 based on a new projection which represented sailing courses of constant bearing as straight lines. He was the first to use the term "atlas" for a collection of maps
1615 Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon a French soldier, called the man without fear and, by Henry IV the brave of the brave.
1632 Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxe-Altenburg a member of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin and a titular Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
1650 Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency an heiress of one of France's leading ducal families, and Princess of Condé by her marriage to Henry de Bourbon. She almost became a mistress of Henry IV of France, but her husband escaped with her after the wedding, and did not return to France until after King Henry's death
1665 Catherine de Vivonne marquise de Rambouillet a society hostess and a major figure in the literary history of 17th-century France.
1694 Pierre Puget a French painter, sculptor, architect and engineer.
1701 Zofia Czarnkowska Opalińska the daughter of Adam Uriel Czarnkowski and Theresa Zaleska. She was also the grandmother of Marie Leszczynska and Anne Leszczynska
1719 Pasquier Quesnel a French Jansenist theologian.
1723 Philippe II Duke of Orléans a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres. His father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, known as Monsieur; his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
1726 Samuel Penhallow a Cornish colonist and historian and militia leader in present-day Maine during Queen Anne's War and Father Rale's War. He was the commander at Fort Menaskoux and was attacked during the Northeast Coast Campaign
1747 Vincent Bourne an English classical scholar and Neo-Latin poet.
1748 Charles Seymour 6th Duke of Somerset a British peer. The son of Charles Seymour, 2nd Baron Seymour of Trowbridge, and Elizabeth Alington , he succeeded his brother Francis Seymour, 5th Duke of Somerset, in the dukedom when the latter was shot in 1678. He also inherited the title of Baron Seymour of Trowbridge
1769 Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania and later regent of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau. He was also a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall
1774 Johann Friedrich Agricola a German composer, organist, singer, pedagogue, and writer on music. He sometimes wrote under the pseudonym Flavio Anicio Olibrio
1796 Jean Charles Abbatucci a French general during the War of the First Coalition. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe
1805 Ferdinand von Tiesenhausen a Russian noble and military officer of German Baltic origin.
1805 Alexander Vorontsov the Russian imperial chancellor during the early years of Alexander I's reign.
1810 Philipp Otto Runge a Romantic German painter and draughtsman. He made a late start to his career and died young, nonetheless he is considered among the best German Romantic painters
1814 Marquis de Sade a French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality. His works include novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts; in his lifetime some were published under his own name, while others appeared anonymously and Sade denied being their author. He is best known for his erotic works, which combined philosophical discourse with pornography, depicting sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence, criminality and blasphemy against the Catholic Church. He was a proponent of extreme freedom, unrestrained by morality, religion or law. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name
1844 Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko Prince Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko - Polish general and politician.
1845 Simon Mayr a German composer.
1847 Ladislaus Pyrker a Hungarian Cistercian abbot, archbishop and poet.
1848 Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois a French admiral during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte. He won a victory over the British at the Battle of Algeciras in 1801 and was reasonably successful in a campaign against British trade in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea in 1803
1849 Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her
1859 John Brown (abolitionist) a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. Brown's followers also killed five slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. Brown's trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging
1860 Ferdinand Christian Baur a German Protestant theologian and founder and leader of the Tübingen School of theology. Following Hegel's theory of dialectic, Baur argued that second century Christianity represented the synthesis of two opposing theses: Jewish Christianity and Gentile Christianity. This and the rest of Baur's work had a profound impact upon higher criticism of biblical and related texts
1863 Jane Pierce Means Appleton Pierce , wife of U.S. President Franklin Pierce, was First Lady of the United States from 1853 to 1857
1872 Wincenty Pol a Polish poet and geographer.
1881 Jenny von Westphalen the wife of the philosopher Karl Marx. They became engaged in 1836 and married in 1843. They had seven children
1885 Isaac Lawrence Milliken served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1854 to 1855. He was a member of the Democratic Party
1885 Pyotr Bulakhov a Russian composer.
1888 Namık Kemal an Ottoman Turkish writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876. Kemal was particularly significant for championing the notions of freedom and fatherland in his numerous plays and poems, and his works would have a powerful impact on the establishment of and future reform movements in Turkey, as well as other former Ottoman lands
1890 Cadmus M. Wilcox a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War and also was a Confederate general during the American Civil War.
1892 Henry Tibbats Stainton an English entomologist.
1892 Jay Gould a leading American railroad developer and speculator. He was long vilified as an archetypal robber baron, whose success at business made him the ninth richest U.S. citizen in history, though modern historians working from primary sources have discounted his portrayal by the contemporary press. Condé Nast Portfolio ranked Gould as the 8th worst American CEO of all time
1898 Barnes Compton a planter and politician, born in Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland and orphaned as a child. In 1851, Compton took control of his numerous estates, becoming wealthy and the second largest slaveholder in Maryland. He was elected as a state representative before the Civil War and as speaker of the state house