Born on December 21

583 Yohl Ik'nal a female ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque, ruling from 583 to 604, during the Mesoamerican Classic Period. Her name means "Heart of the Wind Place"
1336 Balthasar Landgrave of Thuringia Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia from the House of Wettin.
1401 Masaccio the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. According to Vasari, Masaccio was the best painter of his generation because of his skill at recreating lifelike figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of three-dimensionality. Masaccio died at twenty-six and little is known about the exact circumstances of his death
1503 Nostradamus a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with much of the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events. Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power. Nevertheless, occasional commentators have successfully used a process of free interpretation and determined "twisting" of his words to predict an apparently imminent event. For example, in 1867 , Le Pelletier did so to anticipate either the triumph or the defeat of Napoleon III in a war that, in the event, begged to be identified as the Franco-Prussian War, while admitting that he could not specify either which or when
1505 Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton an English peer.
1550 Man Singh I the Rajput Raja of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur in Rajputana. He was a trusted general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him among the Navaratnas, or the 9 gems of the royal court
1553 Sinan Pasha (Ottoman admiral) a Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Navy for nearly four years between 1550 and the end of 1553, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. He was of Croatian descent, the predecessor of Piyale Pasha in this rank and the brother of Grand Vizier Damat Rüstem Pasha, who in turn was married to Sultana Mihrimah, a daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent
1586 Hosokawa Tadatoshi a Japanese samurai daimyo of the early Edo period. He was the head of Kumamoto Domain. He was a patron of the martial artist Miyamoto Musashi
1596 Thomas Francis Prince of Carignano an Italian military commander, the founder of the Savoy-Carignano branch of the House of Savoy which reigned as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861, and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946.
1596 Peter Mogila a Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and All-Rus' from 1633 until his death. He was born into a Moldavian boyar family — the Movilești — one that gave Moldavia and Wallachia several rulers, including his father, Simion Movilă; also, his great-grandfather was the Moldavian Voivode Petru Rareș. Moldavia, Wallahia and part of Transylvania belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Old Church Slavonic was used, until the 17th century, as the common liturgical language in Romanian principalities. Peter Mogila's mother, Marghita , was the daughter of a Moldavian logothete, Gavrilaș Hâra. Peter Mogila's sister Raina Mohylanka married prince Wisniowiecki, and their son Jeremi Wiśniowiecki was Mogila's nephew and supporter even though he himself changed the faith to marry a Roman Catholic princess and to inherit the Polish crown. From his early childhood, Petro Mohyla and his mother were on the move in foreign lands seeking refuge due to instability in Wallachia. For a time, they lived in Kamianets-Podilskyi in Ukraine. But in 1608 they moved to Poland and for sixteen years stayed in Stanisław Żółkiewski's castle.:100 There he started his formal schooling, which, prior to the arrival to the castle, was often interrupted by frequent moves. Petro’s teachers were monks from the Lviv brotherhood and later, he continued his studies of classical literature in Latin, Greek, Polish, Old Slavic and Old Belorussian languages at the academy in Zamość , founded in 1594 by Polish Crown Chancellor Jan Zamoyski. Later Mohyla continued his studies in Paris
1657 Catherine Sedley Countess of Dorchester the mistress of King James II and VII both before and after he came to the thrones. Catherine was not noted for beauty but was famous for her wittiness and sharp tongue
1672 Benjamin Schmolck a German Lutheran composer of hymns.
1683 Carlo Bergonzi (luthier) considered the greatest pupil of Antonio Stradivari.
1684 Ippolito Desideri an Italian Jesuit missionary in Tibet and the first European to have successfully studied and understood Tibetan language and culture.
1714 John Bradstreet a British Army officer during King Georges War, the French and Indian War, and Pontiac's Rebellion. He was born in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia to a British Army Lieutenant and an Acadian mother. He also served as the Commodore-Governor for Newfoundland
1715 François-Vincent Toussaint a French writer most famous for Les Mœurs. The book was published in 1748 and was soon prosecuted and burned by the French court of justice
1715 Gottlieb Heinrich Totleben a Saxon-born Russian Empire general known for his adventurism and contradictory military career.
1728 Hermann Raupach a German composer.
1728 Demetrius Alekseyevich Gallitzin a Russian diplomat.
1734 Francisco Manoel de Nascimento the reputed son of a Lisbon boat-owner.
1735 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski a Polish nobleman , politician, spokesman, statesman and Count since 1798.
1744 Princess Leopoldina of Savoy a Princess of Savoy and later the Princess of Melfi, as wife of Giovanni Andrea VI Doria-Pamphilj-Landi, Prince of Melfi. She was the older sister of the princesse de Lamballe
1758 Jean Baptiste Eblé a French General, Engineer and Artilleryman during the Napoleonic Wars. He is credited with saving Napoleon's Grand Army from complete destruction in 1812
1764 Henri François Delaborde a French general in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
1773 Robert Brown (botanist) a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology. He also made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, including the erection of a number of plant families that are still accepted today; and numerous Australian plant genera and species, the fruit of his exploration of that continent with Matthew Flinders
1778 Anders Sandøe Ørsted a Danish politician and jurist. He served as the Prime Minister of Denmark in 1853-1854
1793 Orest Somov a Ukrainian romantic writer who wrote in the Russian language. He was a writer, journalist, literary critic, and translator. Somov was born in Vovchansk, Kharkiv Oblast. He studied in the Kharkiv University, then moved to Saint Petersburg, where he died
1795 Leopold von Ranke a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history. According to Caroline Hoefferle, “Ranke was probably the most important historian to shape historical profession as it emerged in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century.” He was able to implement the seminar teaching method in his classroom, and focused on archival research and analysis of historical documents. Ranke set the standards for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources , an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics
1795 Robert Moffat (missionary) a Scottish Congregationalist missionary to Africa, and father-in-law of David Livingstone.
1795 John Russell (parson) an enthusiastic fox-hunter and dog breeder, who developed the Jack Russell Terrier, a variety of the Fox Terrier breed.
1796 Tomasz Zan a Polish poet and activist.
1798 Paul (dancer) a French ballet dancer. After dancing in Lyon and Bordeaux, Paul débuted at the Opéra de Paris in 1820 and quickly became one of the public's favourite premiers danseurs. Nicknamed "l'Aérien" due to his technical qualities, August Bournonville stated "Paul's superiority is his lightness, elasticity, speed, softness and precision. He knows how to combine daring and natural grace." He regularly performed in London, with partners including his sister Madame Montessu and Madame Anatole, as well as at Naples, where he was praised by Stendhal. He retired from the stage in 1831
1799 David Don a Scottish botanist.
1799 George Finlay a Scottish historian.
1800 Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1800–1831) the wife of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the mother of Duke Ernst II and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.
1803 Joseph Whitworth an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist. In 1841, he devised the British Standard Whitworth system, which created an accepted standard for screw threads. Whitworth also created the Whitworth rifle, often called the 'sharpshooter' because of its accuracy and considered one of the earliest examples of a sniper rifle
1803 Achille Vianelli an Italian painter of landscapes with genre scenes, often in watercolor.
1804 Benjamin Disraeli a British Conservative politician, writer and aristocrat who twice served as Prime Minister. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the glory and power of the British Empire. He is as of 2014 the only British Prime Minister of Jewish birth
1805 Thomas Graham (chemist) best-remembered today for his pioneering work in dialysis and the diffusion of gases.
1810 Ludwig Schuncke a German pianist and composer, and close friend of Robert Schumann. His early promise was eclipsed by his death from tuberculosis at the age of 23
1811 Archibald Tait an Archbishop of Canterbury in the Church of England.
1813 Ernst Philipp Karl Lange a German novelist who wrote under the pseudonym Philipp Galen.
1815 Thomas Couture an influential French history painter and teacher. Couture taught such later luminaries of the art world as Édouard Manet, Henri Fantin-Latour, John La Farge, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Karel Javůrek, and J-N Sylvestre
1816 Augustus Volney Waller a British neurophysiologist. He was the first to describe the degeneration of severed nerve fibers, now known as Wallerian degeneration
1818 Amalia of Oldenburg queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto.
1819 Konstantin Posyet a Russian statesman and admiral who served as Minister of Transport Communications between 1874 and 1888.
1820 William H. Osborn a 19th Century railroad tycoon. Born and educated in Salem, Massachusetts, Osborn became one of the most prominent railroad leaders in the United States
1821 Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels a German gynecologist and obstetrician born in Prague, in the Austrian Empire.
1828 John Burdon-Sanderson an English physiologist born near Newcastle upon Tyne, and a member of a well known Northumbrian family.
1829 Hans Christian Heg a Norwegian- American politician and soldier in the American Civil War from Wisconsin.