December 21 events in history

69 The Roman Senate declares Vespasian as Roman emperor, the last in the Year of the Four Emperors
1124 Pope Honorius II is elected
1140 Conrad III of Germany besieged Weinsberg
1237 The city of Ryazan is sacked by the Mongol army of Batu Khan
1361 The Battle of Linuesa is fought in the context of the Spanish Reconquista between the forces of the Emirate of Granada and the combined army of the Kingdom of Castile and of Jaén resulting in a Castilian victory
1598 Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelentaru, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile
1620 Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts
1826 American settlers in Nacogdoches, Mexican Texas, declare their independence, starting the Fredonian Rebellion
1832 Egyptian–Ottoman War: Egyptian forces decisively defeat Ottoman troops at the Battle of Konya
1844 The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers commences business at its cooperative in Rochdale, England, United Kingdom starting the Cooperative movement
1861 Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln
1872 Challenger expedition: HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth, England
1879 World première of Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark
1883 The Royal Canadian Dragoons and The Royal Canadian Regiment, the first Permanent Force cavalry and infantry regiments of the Canadian Army, are formed
1907 The Chilean Army commits a massacre of at least 2,000 striking saltpeter miners in Iquique, Chile
1910 An underground explosion at the Hulton Bank Colliery No. 3 Pit in Over Hulton, Westhoughton, England, kills 344 miners
1913 Arthur Wynne's "word-cross", the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World
1919 American anarchist Emma Goldman is deported to Russia
1923 United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, called the Nepal–Britain Treaty of 1923, which superseded the Sugauli Treaty signed in 1816
1936 First flight of the Junkers Ju 88 multi-role combat aircraft
1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world's first full-length animated feature, premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre
1941 World War II: A formal treaty of alliance between Thailand and Japan is signed in the presence of the Emerald Buddha in Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand
1946 An 8.1 Mw earthquake and subsequent tsunami in Nankaidō, Japan, kills over 1,300 people and destroys over 38,000 homes
1951 Libya became an independent country
1962 Rondane National Park is established as Norway's first national park
1967 Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo a heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, having lived for 18 days after the transplant
1968 Apollo program: Apollo 8 is launched from the Kennedy Space Center, placing its crew on a lunar trajectory for the first visit to another celestial body by humans
1969 The United Nations adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
1973 The Geneva Conference on the Arab–Israeli conflict opens
1979 Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London, England, United Kingdom by Lord Peter Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and S.C. Mundawarara
1988 A bomb explodes on board Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, killing 270
1992 A Dutch DC-10, flight Martinair MP 495, crashes at Faro Airport, killing 56
1994 Mexican volcano Popocatépetl, dormant for 47 years, erupts gases and ash
1995 The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control
1999 The Spanish Civil Guard intercepts a van loaded with 950 kg of explosives that ETA intended to use to blow up Torre Picasso in Madrid, Spain
2004 Iraq War: A suicide bomber killed 22 at the forward operating base next to the main U.S. military airfield at Mosul, Iraq, the single deadliest suicide attack on American soldiers
2012 The world was predicted to end on December 21, 2012 according to some calendars
2012 The Walt Disney Company completed its acquisition of Lucasfilm and of the Star Wars franchise