Died on December 22

69 Vitellius Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors
1100 Bretislaus II Duke of Bohemia the Duke of Bohemia from 14 September 1092 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Vratislaus II and Adelaide, daughter of Andrew I of Hungary. He was a major enemy of paganism
1115 Olaf Magnusson of Norway king of Norway 1103–1115. He was the son of King Magnus Barefoot and Sigrid, daughter of Saxe of Vik
1204 Fujiwara no Shunzei a noted Japanese poet and nobleman, son of Fujiwara no Toshitada. He was also known as Fujiwara no Toshinari or Shakua ; in his younger days , he gave his name as Akihiro , but in 1167, changed to Shunzei. He was noted for his innovations in the waka poetic form, and for his achievement in compiling Senzai Wakashū , the seventh Imperial anthology of waka poetry; this work was at the behest in 1183 of the Retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa, who despite Shunzei's low rank , admired him. Go-Shirakawa's trust in Shunzei is significant, as Imperial anthologies were landmarks in the poetic circles of the court, second to no other events in significance; poets were literally willing to risk their lives just for the chance to have a poem included. His son, Fujiwara no Teika, is considered one of the four best poets in Japanese history
1316 Giles of Rome an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. Giles was styled Doctor Fundatissimus by Pope Benedict XIV. He was Prior General of the Augustinian order, and also authored two other important works, De Ecclesiastica Potestate, a major text of early 14th century papalism, and De Regimine Principum, a guide book for princes
1419 Antipope John XXIII Pope John XXIII during the Western Schism. The Catholic Church regards him as an antipope, as he opposed the Pope whom the Catholic Church now recognizes as the rightful successor of Saint Peter. He was eventually deposed and tried for various crimes, though later accounts question the veracity of those accusations
1476 Isabel Neville Duchess of Clarence the elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick , and Anne de Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick. She was the wife of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. She was also the elder sister of Anne Neville, who was Princess of Wales, by her first marriage and Queen consort of England by her second
1530 Willibald Pirckheimer a German Renaissance lawyer, author and Renaissance humanist, a wealthy and prominent figure in Nuremberg in the 16th century, and a member of the governing City Council for two periods. He was the closest friend of the artist Albrecht Dürer, who made a number of portraits of him, and a close friend of the great humanist and theologian Erasmus
1542 Hieronymus Łaski a Polish diplomat born of an illustrious Polish family. Laski was the nephew of Archbishop John Laski and served as palatine of Inowrocław and of Sieradia, Sieradz
1550 Richard Plantagenet (Richard of Eastwell) a reclusive bricklayer who was claimed to be a son of Richard III, the last Plantagenet King of England.
1554 Moretto da Brescia an Italian Renaissance painter of Brescia and Venice.
1572 François Clouet a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family.
1585 Vittoria Accoramboni an Italian noblewoman. Her life became the basis for three stories and two novels
1612 Francesco IV Gonzaga Duke of Mantua Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat between 9 February and 22 December 1612.
1616 Jacob Le Maire a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616. The strait between Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados was named the Le Maire Strait in his honor, though not without controversy. It was Le Maire himself who proposed to the council aboard Eendracht that the new passage should be called by his name and the council unanimously agreed with Le Maire. The author or authors of The Relation took Eendracht captain Schouten’s side by proclaiming:
1641 Maximilien de Béthune Duke of Sully the doughty soldier, French minister, staunch Huguenot and faithful right-hand man who assisted king Henry IV of France in the rule of France. Historians emphasize Sully's role in building a strong centralized administrative system in France using coercion and highly effective new administrative techniques. His policies were not original, and most were reversed. Historians have also studied his neo-Stoicism and his ideas about virtue, prudence, and discipline
1646 Peter Mogila a Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and All-Rus' from 1633 until his death. He was born into a Moldavian boyar family — the Movilești — one that gave Moldavia and Wallachia several rulers, including his father, Simion Movilă; also, his great-grandfather was the Moldavian Voivode Petru Rareș. Moldavia, Wallahia and part of Transylvania belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Old Church Slavonic was used, until the 17th century, as the common liturgical language in Romanian principalities. Peter Mogila's mother, Marghita , was the daughter of a Moldavian logothete, Gavrilaș Hâra. Peter Mogila's sister Raina Mohylanka married prince Wisniowiecki, and their son Jeremi Wiśniowiecki was Mogila's nephew and supporter even though he himself changed the faith to marry a Roman Catholic princess and to inherit the Polish crown. From his early childhood, Petro Mohyla and his mother were on the move in foreign lands seeking refuge due to instability in Wallachia. For a time, they lived in Kamianets-Podilskyi in Ukraine. But in 1608 they moved to Poland and for sixteen years stayed in Stanisław Żółkiewski's castle.:100 There he started his formal schooling, which, prior to the arrival to the castle, was often interrupted by frequent moves. Petro’s teachers were monks from the Lviv brotherhood and later, he continued his studies of classical literature in Latin, Greek, Polish, Old Slavic and Old Belorussian languages at the academy in Zamość , founded in 1594 by Polish Crown Chancellor Jan Zamoyski. Later Mohyla continued his studies in Paris
1660 André Tacquet a brabantian mathematician and Jesuit Priest. His work prepared ground for the eventual discovery of the calculus
1666 Guercino an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style
1668 Stephen Daye the first British North American printer.
1681 Richard Alleine an English Puritan divine.
1708 Hedvig Sophia of Sweden a Swedish princess and a Duchess Consort of Holstein-Gottorp, the eldest child of King Charles XI of Sweden, and his spouse Queen Ulrica Eleanor. She was heir presumptive to the Swedish throne until her death and the regent of the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp for her minor son from 1702 to 1708. Some sources refer to her as Sofia
1738 Jean-Joseph Mouret a French composer whose dramatic works made him one of the leading exponents of Baroque music in his country. Even though most of his works are no longer performed, Mouret's name survives today thanks to the popularity of the Fanfare-Rondeau from his first Suite de symphonies, which has been adopted as the signature tune of the PBS program Masterpiece and is a popular musical choice in many modern weddings
1738 Constantia Jones a prostitute in London, UK during the term of Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who was sentenced to hang for stealing 36 shillings and a half-guinea from one of her clients. Her accuser, describing her as "a three-penny upright," testified as follows: "As I stood against the Wall, came behind me, and with one hand she took hold of... --and the other she thrust into my Breeches Pocket and took my Money." Based on this testimony, Jones was sentenced to hang at Tyburn
1748 Johann Nepomuk Karl Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1732 and 1748. He was the son of Johann Josef Anton
1755 Margravine Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach a German princess. She was the daughter of Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and his wife Duchess Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp. She married Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
1767 John Newbery an English publisher of books who first made children's literature a sustainable and profitable part of the literary market. He also supported and published the works of Christopher Smart, Oliver Goldsmith and Samuel Johnson. In honor of his achievements in children's publishing, the Newbery Medal was named after him
1778 Simon Mathurin Lantara a French landscape painter.
1785 Jan de Witte a Polish military engineer, professional officer and architect of Dutch descent. The designer of, among others, the Dominican church in Lwów and the Carmelite monastery in Berdyczów , he was also the military commandant of the fortress at Kamieniec Podolski
1788 Percivall Pott an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
1797 Giovanni Marco Rutini an Italian composer.
1801 Jovan Rajić a Serbian and Bulgarian writer, historian, traveller, and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Serbian academics of the 18th century. He was one of the most notable representatives of Serbian Baroque literature along with Zaharije Orfelin, Pavle Julinac, Vasilije III Petrović-Njegoš, Simeon Končarević, Simeon Piščević, and others
1806 William Vernon a New England trader who played a leading role in the Continental Congress' maritime activities during the American Revolution. As president of the Eastern Navy Board during the Revolution, he was responsible for building and outfitting the ships of the Continental Navy
1809 William Cooper (judge) an American merchant, land speculator and developer, the founder of Cooperstown, New York, and a judge. A politician, he served two terms in the United States Congress, representing Otsego County and central New York. He was the father of James Fenimore Cooper, who became a noted writer
1815 José María Morelos a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. He was later captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815
1819 Johann Peter Beaulieu an Austrian military officer. He joined the Austrian army and fought against the Prussians during the Seven Years' War. A cultured man, he later battled Belgian rebels and earned promotion to general officer. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought against the First French Republic and attained high command. In 1796, a young Napoleon Bonaparte won some of his first victories against an army led by Beaulieu. He retired and was the Proprietor of an Austrian infantry regiment until his death
1822 Charles Moore 1st Marquess of Drogheda a British peer and military officer. He bore the colours of his regiment at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the Jacobite risings and later commanded the 18th Light Dragoons during operations against the Whiteboys in Ireland. He also sat as Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and, having served as Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he went on to become Master-General of the Irish Ordnance
1828 Karl Mack von Leiberich an Austrian soldier. He is best remembered as the commander of the Austrian forces that capitulated to Napoleon's Grande Armée in the Battle of Ulm in 1805. Mack makes a brief appearance as a character in book two of Tolstoy's War and Peace
1828 Rachel Jackson the wife of Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the United States. She lived with him at their home at The Hermitage, but died before his inauguration in 1829, and therefore was never First Lady; Those duties were assumed by her niece, Emily Donelson
1828 William Hyde Wollaston famous for discovering two chemical elements; he also developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots.
1832 Ishmail Spicer a publisher in Baltimore, a teacher, and one of the first American composers.
1835 Franz von Paula Schrank a German priest, botanist and entomologist.
1846 Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent a French naturalist.
1852 James Francis Stephens an English entomologist and naturalist. He is known for his 12 volume Illustrations of British Entomology and the Manual of British Beetles
1854 Manuel Jimenes a Cuban born military figure and politician in the Dominican Republic. He served as the second President of the Dominican Republic from September 8, 1848 until May 29, 1849. Prior to that he served as the country's Minister of War and Marine Affairs
1854 Bengt Erland Fogelberg a Swedish sculptor.
1855 Walerian Krasiński a Polish Calvinist politician, nationalist and historian.
1859 Robert McAlpin Williamson a Republic of Texas Supreme Court Justice, state lawmaker and Texas Ranger. Williamson County, Texas is named for him
1867 Jean-Victor Poncelet a French engineer and mathematician who served most notably as the commandant general of the École polytechnique. He is considered a reviver of projective geometry, and his work Traité des propriétés projectives des figures is considered the first definitive paper on the subject since Gérard Desargues' work on it in the 17th century. He later wrote an introduction to it; Applications d’analyse et de géométrie
1870 Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer , also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented drawer. Today he is considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature, and is considered by some as the most read writer after Cervantes. He adopted the alias of Bécquer as his brother Valeriano Bécquer, a painter, had done earlier. He was associated with the post-romanticism movement and wrote while realism was enjoying success in Spain. He was moderately well known during his life, but it was after his death that most of his works were published. His best known works are the Rhymes and the Legends, usually published together as Rimas y leyendas. These poems and tales are essential to the study of Spanish literature and common reading for high-school students in Spanish-speaking countries