Born on December 24

3 Galba Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors
427 Archbishop Sisinnius I of Constantinople the Archbishop of Constantinople from 426 to 427.
1143 Miles of Gloucester 1st Earl of Hereford High Sheriff of Gloucester and Constable of England.
1166 John King of England King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom
1389 John VI Duke of Brittany duke of Brittany, Count of Montfort, and titular earl of Richmond, from 1399 to his death. He was son of Duke John V and Joan of Navarre
1475 Thomas Murner a German satirist, poet and translator.
1508 Pietro Carnesecchi an Italian humanist.
1573 Takuan Sōhō a major figure in the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism.
1588 Constance of Austria queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir.
1597 Honoré II Prince of Monaco Sovereign Prince of Monaco. He was the first to be called Prince, but started his reign as Lord of Monaco
1609 Philip Warwick the son of Thomas Warwick, or Warrick, a musician.
1625 Johann Rudolph Ahle a German composer, organist, theorist, and Protestant church musician.
1634 Mariana of Austria Queen consort of Spain as the second wife of King Philip IV, who was also her maternal uncle. At the death of her husband in 1665, Queen Mariana became regent for her son Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg, and she remained an influential figure during his reign
1637 Pierre Jurieu a French Protestant leader.
1638 Ralph Montagu 1st Duke of Montagu an English courtier and diplomat.
1645 Hans Carl von Carlowitz a German tax accountant and mining administrator. His book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about forestry. He is considered to be the father of sustainable yield forestry
1679 Domenico Sarro an Italian composer.
1698 William Warburton an English writer, literary critic and churchman, Bishop of Gloucester from 1759 until his death. He edited editions of the works of his friend Alexander Pope, and of William Shakespeare
1724 Johann Conrad Amman (1724-1811) a Swiss physician, naturalist, and collector.
1726 Johann Hartmann a Danish composer. Two of his sons were composers, Johan Ernst Hartmann and August Wilhelm Hartmann. The latter's sons included Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann
1740 Anders Johan Lexell known as Andrei Ivanovich Leksel.
1745 William Paterson (judge) a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the U.S. Constitution, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, who served as the 2nd governor of New Jersey, from 1790 to 1793
1749 Karl Gottfried Hagen a German chemist.
1752 Joseph Delaunay a French deputy.
1754 George Crabbe an English poet, surgeon, and clergyman. He is best known for his early use of the realistic narrative form and his descriptions of middle and working-class life and people
1761 Jean-Louis Pons a French astronomer. Despite humble beginnings and being self-taught, he went on to become the greatest visual comet discoverer of all time: between 1801 and 1827 Pons discovered thirty-seven comets, more than any other person in history
1761 Selim III the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807. The Janissaries eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa Selim was killed by a group of assassins subsequently after a Janissary revolt
1764 Heinrich Gustav Flörke a German botanist and lichenologist.
1766 Johann Tobias Bürg an Austrian astronomer.
1773 Joseph Wölfl an Austrian pianist and composer.
1779 Ludwig von Stieglitz Jewish Russian commersant and founder of banking house Stieglitz & Company. He was born as youngest of three sons of Waldeck county's court Jewish banker Hirsch Bernhard Stieglitz and his wife Edel Elisabeth. As a young man Stieglitz moved to Russia as a representative of his merchant house, and eventually was appointed court banker to the czar Alexander I, gaining influence and receiving various Russian decorations. After adopting Christianity he was raised to the dignity of a Russian hereditary baron on August 22, 1826 as Ludwig von Stieglitz
1782 Charles Hubert Millevoye a French poet several times honored by the Académie française. He was a transitional figure between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries as revealed in his Romantic poems. His poem beginning "Dans les bois l'amoureux Myrtil" is also well known as set to music in Vieille Chanson by Georges Bizet, as well as Le Mancenillier, as referred to in Meyerbeer's L'Africaine and Louis Moreau Gottschalk's serenade for piano Le Mancenillier, 11
1784 Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia a daughter of Grand Duke, later Tsar Paul I of Russia and his second wife Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. After marrying the son and heir of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin she became spouse to the heir and thus dropped her Russian title
1786 Gregor MacGregor a Scottish soldier, adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in the South American struggle for independence. After his return to Britain in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais , a fictional Central American country that MacGregor had invented which, with his promotional efforts, drew investors and eventually colonists
1787 Prince William of Hesse-Kassel son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen.
1791 Eugène Scribe a French dramatist and librettist. He is known for the perfection of the so-called "well-made play" , a mainstay of popular theatre for over 100 years, and as the librettist of many of the most successful grand operas
1798 Adam Mickiewicz a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland and Europe to Byron and Goethe
1800 Ferdinand Keller (antiquity scholar) a Swiss archaeologist. He is mainly known for his investigations of Swiss lake dwellings in 1853–54, and work on the remains of the La Tène culture. He is the founder of the Antiquarische Gesellschaft in Zürich
1804 Édouard Chassaignac a French physician. He was born in Nantes and in 1835 became prosecutor and professor at the university and physician at the central bureau of the hospitals of Paris. He originated the surgical operation known as écrasement, by means of which tumors, piles, polypi, and other growths may be removed without the effusion of blood. The general introduction of drainage in surgery is also due to his initiative. He introduced the use of drainage tubes into surgery
1809 Kit Carson an American trailblazer and Indian fighter. Carson left home in rural present-day Missouri at age 16 and became a mountain man and trapper in the West. Carson explored the west to Spanish California, and north through the Rocky Mountains. He lived among and married into the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. He was hired by John Fremont as a guide, and led 'the Pathfinder' through much of California, Oregon and the Great Basin area. He achieved national fame through Fremont's accounts of his expeditions and was featured as the hero of many dime novels
1810 Wilhelm Marstrand born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Nicolai Jacob Marstrand, instrument maker and inventor, and Petra Othilia Smith. Marstrand is one of the most renowned artists belonging to the Golden Age of Danish Painting
1812 Karl Eduard Zachariae von Lingenthal an eminent German jurist and the son of Karl Salomo Zachariae von Lingenthal.
1813 Jean Pirro a French linguist who in 1868 invented the "universal language", Universalglot. He was born in Woustviller, France. He was also the father of André Pirro
1818 Eliza Cook an English author, Chartist poet and writer born in London Road, Southwark.
1818 James Prescott Joule an English physicist and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the law of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named for James Joule. He worked with Lord Kelvin to develop the absolute scale of temperature. Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is now called Joule's first law
1819 Antonio de Trueba a Spanish poet, novelist, and folklorist born at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821 , where he was privately educated.
1820 Justin Clinchant a French Army general, entered the army from St Cyr in 1841.
1821 Gabriel García Moreno an Ecuadorian politician who twice served as President of Ecuador and was assassinated during his second term, after being elected to a third. He is noted for his conservatism, Catholic religious perspective and rivalry with liberal strongman Eloy Alfaro. Under his administration, Ecuador became a leader in science and higher education within Latin America. In addition to the advances in education and science, he was noted for economically and agriculturally advancing the country, as well as for his staunch opposition to corruption, even giving his own salary to charity
1822 Charles Hermite a French mathematician who did research on number theory, quadratic forms, invariant theory, orthogonal polynomials, elliptic functions, and algebra.
1822 Matthew Arnold an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School, and brother to both Tom Arnold, literary professor, and William Delafield Arnold, novelist and colonial administrator. Matthew Arnold has been characterised as a sage writer, a type of writer who chastises and instructs the reader on contemporary social issues