Died on December 24

12 Juvenaly of Alaska a hieromartyr and member of the first group of Orthodox missionaries who came from the monastery of Valaam to evangelize the native inhabitants of Alaska. He was martyred while evangelizing among the Yupik Eskimos on the mainland of Alaska in 1796. His feast day is celebrated on July 2, and he is also commemorated with all the saints of Alaska , and with the first martyrs of the American land
738 Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik an Umayyad prince and one of the most prominent Arab generals of the early decades of the 8th century, leading several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and the Khazar Khaganate. He achieved great fame especially for leading the second and last Arab siege of the Byzantine capital Constantinople, and for strengthening the Muslim presence in the Caucasus, becoming the "founder of Islamic Derbent"
1003 William II of Weimar Count of Weimar from 963 and Duke of Thuringia from 1002.
1065 Ferdinand I of León and Castile the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. According to tradition, he was the first to have himself crowned Emperor of Spain , and his heirs carried on the tradition. He was a younger son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile, and by his father's will recognised the supremacy of his eldest brother, García Sánchez III of Navarre. While Ferdinand inaugurated the rule of the Navarrese Jiménez dynasty over western Spain, his rise to preeminence among the Christian rulers of the peninsula shifted the locus of power and culture westward after more than a century of Leonese decline. Nevertheless, "he internal consolidation of the realm of León–Castilla under Fernando el Magno and Sancha is a history that remains to be researched and written."
1193 Roger III of Sicily the son and heir of Tancred of Sicily by Sibylla of Acerra. He was made duke of Apulia, probably in 1189, at his father's succession
1257 John I Count of Hainaut the count of Hainaut from 1246 to his death. Born in Houffalize, he was the eldest son of Margaret II of Flanders by her first husband, Bouchard IV of Avesnes. As the marriage of Margaret and Bouchard was papally dissolved, he was considered illegitimate
1281 Henry V of Luxembourg the count of Arlon from 1226 to his death, lord of Ligny from 1240 to his death, count of Luxembourg and Laroche from 1247 to his death, and the count of Namur between 1256 and 1264 as Henry III. He was the son and successor of Waleran III of Limburg and Ermesinda of Luxembourg
1317 Jean de Joinville one of the great chroniclers of medieval France. He is most famous for writing Life of Louis, a biography of Louis IX of France that chronicled the Seventh Crusade
1453 John Dunstaple an English composer of polyphonic music of the late medieval era and early Renaissance periods. He was one of the most famous composers active in the early 15th century, a near-contemporary of Leonel Power, and was widely influential, not only in England but on the continent, especially in the developing style of the Burgundian School
1456 Đurađ Branković a Serbian despot from 1427 to 1456 and a baron of the Kingdom of Hungary. He collected a large library of Serbian, Slavonic, Latin, and Greek manuscripts and made his capital Smederevo, a centre of Serbian culture. He was the first of the House of Branković to hold the Serbian monarchy
1473 John Cantius a Polish priest, scholastic philosopher, physicist and theologian. He is also known as John of Kanty or John of Kanti or John Kantius
1541 Andreas Karlstadt a German Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. He was born in Karlstadt, Franconia
1598 Martín García Óñez de Loyola a Spanish Basque soldier and Royal Governor of the Captaincy General of Chile.
1614 Marina Mniszech a Polish noblewoman, a Russian Tsarina and a prominent warlord during Russia's Time of Troubles.
1616 György Thurzó the Palatine of Hungary between.
1635 Hester Jonas a German midwife and called a cunning woman. She was executed for witchcraft and is known as the so-called Witch of Neuss
1638 Tayyar Mehmed Pasha an Ottoman grand vizier. His epithet Tayyar means "flying", referring to his speed in military operations
1660 Mary Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau as the wife of Prince William She was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France. Her only child later reigned as King William III of England and Ireland and II of Scotland
1692 Maria Antonia of Austria the eldest daughter and only surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and his wife Margaret Theresa of Spain. She became Electress of Bavaria when she married in 1685, but died prematurely in 1692
1707 Noël Coypel a French painter, and was also called Coypel le Poussin, because he was heavily influenced by Poussin.
1803 Georg I Duke of Saxe-Meiningen Duke of Saxe-Meiningen from 1782 to 1803. He was known as a reformer and considered a model prince by many of his peers
1804 Martin Vahl a Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist.
1806 Ferdinand Duke of Breisgau a son of Holy Roman Emperor Franz I and Maria Theresa of Austria. He was the founder of the House of Austria-Este and Governor of the Duchy of Milan between 1765 and 1796. He was also designated as the heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio, but never reigned owing to the Napoleonic Wars
1813 Empress Go-Sakuramachi the 117th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1814 Sir Samuel Hood 1st Baronet an officer of the Royal Navy and the cousin once removed of the more famous Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood and his younger brother Alexander Hood who sponsored Arthur Sir Samuel Hood and his younger brother Alexander into the Royal Navy.
1823 James Gandon today recognised as one of the leading architects to have worked in Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century. His better known works include The Custom House, the Four Courts, King's Inns in Dublin and Emo Court in County Laois
1824 Pushmataha one of the three regional chiefs of the major divisions of the Choctaw in the 19th century. Many historians considered him the "greatest of all Choctaw chiefs". Pushmataha was highly regarded among Native Americans, Europeans, and white Americans, for his skill and cunning in both war and diplomacy
1833 Ludwig von Hagemeister a Baltic German that held the rank of Captain of the 1st rank in the Imperial Russian Navy. He was maritime explorer of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, and served as the second chief manager of the Russian-American Company
1840 Friedrich Wilken a German historian , professor and librarian.
1847 Finnur Magnússon an Icelandic scholar and archaeologist who worked in Denmark.
1850 Christian Friedrich Hornschuch a German botanist born in Rodach, Bavaria.
1850 Frédéric Bastiat a French classical liberal theorist, political economist, and member of the French assembly. He was notable for developing the important economic concept of opportunity cost, and for penning the influential Parable of the Broken Window. His ideas have gone on to provide a foundational basis for libertarian and the Austrian schools of thought
1857 Stanisław Jachowicz a Polish educator, poet and children books author. He is regarded as the founding father of children literature in Poland
1863 William Makepeace Thackeray an English novelist of the 19th century. He was famous for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society
1864 Princess Caraboo a noted impostor who went by the name Princess Caraboo. She pretended to be from a far off island kingdom and fooled a British town for some months
1865 Charles Lock Eastlake an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century.
1867 José Mariano Salas a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico. He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne
1868 Adolphe d'Archiac a French geologist and paleontologist.
1869 Edwin M. Stanton an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. He also organized the manhunt for Lincoln's killer, John Wilkes Booth
1872 William John Macquorn Rankine a Scottish civil engineer, physicist and mathematician. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson , to the science of thermodynamics, particularly focusing on the first of the three thermodynamic laws
1873 Johns Hopkins an American entrepreneur, abolitionist and philanthropist of 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland.
1876 Narcyza Żmichowska a Polish novelist and poet. She is considered a precursor of feminism in Poland
1882 Johann Benedict Listing a German mathematician.
1884 Philipp von Jolly a German physicist and mathematician.
1887 Daniel Manning an American businessman, journalist, and politician most notable for having served as the 37th United States Secretary of the Treasury.
1889 Charles Mackay (author) a Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist, and songwriter, remembered mainly for his book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.
1889 Jan Jakob Lodewijk ten Kate a Dutch divine, prose writer and poet. He was born at The Hague
1889 Sergey Botkin a famous Russian clinician, therapist, and activist, one of the founders of modern Russian medical science and education. He introduced triage, pathological anatomy, and post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice
1891 Johannes Janssen a Catholic priest and German historian born in Xanten. After graduating from the Rektoratsschule in Xanten he was educated at the universities of Münster, Leuven, Bonn and Berlin, afterwards becoming a teacher of history in Frankfurt-am-Main
1893 Robert Bentley (botanist) an English botanist. He is perhaps best remembered today for the four-volume Medicinal Plants, published in 1880 with Henry Trimen and containing over three hundred hand-colored plates by botanist David Blair