Died on December 26

268 Pope Dionysius the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 22 July 259 to his death in 268.
831 Euthymius of Sardis metropolitan bishop of Sardis between 785 and 804, and a leading iconophile during the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Martyred in 831, he is a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, celebrated on 26 December
1191 Reginald Fitz Jocelin a medieval Bishop of Bath and an Archbishop of Canterbury-elect in England. A member of an Anglo-Norman noble family, he was the son of a bishop, and was educated in Italy. He was a household clerk for Thomas Becket, but by 1167 he was serving King Henry II of England. He was also a favourite of King Louis VII of France, who had him appointed abbot of the Abbey of Corbeil. After Reginald angered Becket while attempting to help negotiate a settlement between Becket and the king, Becket called him "that offspring of fornication, that enemy to the peace of the Church, that traitor." When he was elected as a bishop, the election was challenged by King Henry's eldest son, Henry the Young King, and Reginald was forced to go to Rome to be confirmed by Pope Alexander III. He attended the Third Lateran Council in 1179, and spent much of his time administering his diocese. He was elected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1191, but died before he could be installed
1194 Aubrey de Vere 1st Earl of Oxford a noble involved in the succession conflict between King Stephen and Empress Matilda in the mid-twelfth century.
1242 Hugh de Lacy 1st Earl of Ulster the younger son of Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath. He was a leading figure in the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. He was created Earl of Ulster in 1205 by King John of England
1302 Valdemar King of Sweden King of Sweden from 1250–1275.
1331 Philip I Prince of Taranto titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople , despot of Epirus, King of Albania, Prince of Achaea and Taranto, and Lord of Durazzo.
1352 John 3rd Earl of Kent an English nobleman who was the posthumous son of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and the cousin of King Edward III of England.
1360 Thomas Holland 1st Earl of Kent an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
1364 Alexandra Velyaminova a Grand Princess consort of Muscovy; she was married to Grand Prince Ivan II of Moscow. She was the daughter of Vasily Velyaminov, a mayor of Moscow
1413 Michele Steno a Venetian statesman who served as the 63rd Doge of Venice from December 1, 1400 until his death.
1417 Eleanor of Aragon Queen of Cyprus Queen consort of Cyprus as the wife of King Peter I of Cyprus. She was a member of the House of Barcelona as the daughter of Peter of Aragon and his wife Joan of Foix
1458 Arthur III Duke of Brittany Lord of Parthenay and titular Count of Richmond in England and for eleven months at the very end of his life, Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort after inheriting those titles upon the death of his nephew.
1476 Galeazzo Maria Sforza Duke of Milan from 1466 until his death. He was famous for being lustful, cruel and tyrannical
1530 Babur a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Timur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. Culturally, he was greatly influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent
1574 Charles Cardinal of Lorraine a French Cardinal, a member of the powerful House of Guise. He was known at first as the Cardinal of Guise, and then as the second Cardinal of Lorraine, after the death of his uncle, John, Cardinal of Lorraine. He was the protector of Rabelais and Ronsard and founded Reims University. He is sometimes known as the Cardinal de Lorraine
1584 Giovanni Francesco Commendone an Italian Cardinal and papal nuncio.
1622 Melchior Adam a German literature historian.
1633 Jakob Bartsch a German astronomer.
1646 Henri Prince of Condé (1588–1646) a Prince du Sang.
1664 Eleonore Dorothea of Anhalt-Dessau a princess of Anhalt-Dessau by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weimar.
1675 Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart a French nobleman and father of the Marquise de Montespan. He was a friend of the French King Louis XIII
1703 Johann Sturm a German philosopher. Sturm is the author of Physica Electiva , a book which criticized Leibniz and prompted him to publish a rebuke. Sturm's critique was aimed at Leibniz's view that Nature and/or its constituent parts possess some creative force of their own. This criticism was partly theological, in that Sturm claimed Leibniz's view of Nature undermined the sovereignty of the Creator
1725 Tomasz Józef Zamoyski a Polish nobleman.
1731 Antoine Houdar de la Motte a French author.
1758 François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel a French dramatist and satirist.
1771 Claude Adrien Helvétius a French philosopher and littérateur.
1780 John Fothergill (physician) an English physician, plant collector, philanthropist and Quaker.
1784 Otto Friedrich Müller a Danish naturalist.
1784 Seth Warner a Revolutionary War officer from Vermont who rose to rank of Continental colonel and was often given the duties of a brigade commander. He is best known for his leadership in the capture of Fort Crown Point, the Battle of Longueuil, the siege of Quebec, the retreat from Canada, and the battles of Hubbardton and Bennington
1786 Gasparo Gozzi an Venetian critic and dramatist.
1797 John Wilkes an English radical, journalist, and politician.
1806 Louis Carrogis Carmontelle a French dramatist, painter, architect, set designer and author, and designer of one of the earliest examples of the French landscape garden, Parc Monceau in Paris. He also invented the transparent, an early ancestor of the magic lantern and motion picture, for viewing moving bands of landscape paintings
1818 Maria Isabel of Portugal an Infanta of Portugal who became the Queen of Spain as the second wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain.
1831 Johann Maria Philipp Frimont an Austrian general.
1831 Stephen Girard a French-born, naturalized American, philanthropist and banker. He personally saved the U.S. government from financial collapse during the War of 1812, and became one of the wealthiest people in America, estimated to have been the fourth richest American of all time, based on the ratio of his fortune to contemporary GDP. Childless, he devoted much of his fortune to philanthropy, particularly the education and welfare of orphans. His legacy is still felt in his adopted home of Philadelphia
1836 Hans Georg Nägeli a composer and music publisher.
1837 Martin van Marum a Dutch physician, inventor, scientist and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen. Van Marum introduced modern chemistry in the Netherlands after the theories of Lavoisier, and several scientific applications for general use. He became famous for his demonstrations with instruments, most notable the Large electricity machine, to show statical electricity and chemical experiments while curator for the Teylers Museum
1838 Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai a French politician and lawyer.
1839 Laurent Jean François Truguet a French admiral.
1846 Nikolay Yazykov a Russian poet and Slavophile who in the 1820s rivalled Alexander Pushkin and Yevgeny Baratynsky as the most popular poet of his generation.
1858 James Gadsden an American diplomat, soldier and businessman and namesake of the Gadsden Purchase, in which the United States purchased from Mexico the land that became the southern portion of Arizona and New Mexico. James Gadsden served as Adjutant General of the S. Army from August 13, 1821 – March 22, 1822, and held the rank of colonel in the US Army. He was commonly known as General Gadsden but was only a two-star general
1866 Samuel Ryan Curtis an American military officer, and one of the first Republicans elected to Congress. He was most famous for his role as a Union Army general in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War
1869 Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille a French physicist and physiologist.
1880 Manuel Murillo Toro a Colombian politician and statesman, who served as President of the United States of Colombia on two occasions, first from 1864 to 1866, and again between 1872 and 1874.
1885 Nicolás Avellaneda an Argentine politician and journalist, and president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. Avellaneda's main projects while in office were banking and education reform, leading to Argentina's economic growth. The most important events of his government were the Conquest of the Desert and the transformation of the City of Buenos Aires into a federal district
1886 Theodor von Oppolzer an Austrian astronomer and mathematician of Bohemian origin.
1888 Pasquale Stanislao Mancini an Italian jurist and statesman.
1890 Heinrich Schliemann a German businessman and a pioneer of field archaeology. He was an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in the works of Homer. Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Hissarlik, now presumed to be the site of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns. His work lent weight to the idea that Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid reflect actual historical events. Schliemann's excavation of nine levels of archaeological remains with dynamite has been criticized as destructive of significant historical artifacts, including the level that is believed to be the historical Troy
1896 Emil du Bois-Reymond a German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father of experimental electrophysiology.