Born on December 27

1350 John I of Aragon the King of Aragon from 1387 until his death.
1390 Anne de Mortimer the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandmother of King Edward IV and King Richard III.
1459 John I Albert King of Poland and Duke of Głogów.
1555 Johann Arndt a German Lutheran theologian who wrote several influential books of devotional Christianity. Although reflective of the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy, he is seen as a forerunner of pietism, a movement within Lutheranism that gained strength in the late 17th century
1571 Johannes Kepler a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation
1572 Johannes Vodnianus Campanus a Czech humanist, composer, pedagogue, poet, and dramatist. He was born in Vodňany , in southern Bohemia. He studied at the University of Prague and in 1596 and was made Master of Liberal Arts there. He became a teacher in Prague and Kutná Hora. From 1603 he taught Greek and Latin at the University of Prague. He also taught history and Latin poetry. He was repeatedly appointed as dean, prorector, and rector of this university
1594 Ove Gjedde a Danish admiral and member of the interim government that followed the death of Christian IV and imposed harsh restrictions on Frederick III due to his close ties to Germany.
1660 Veronica Giuliani Saint Veronica Giuliani, O.S.C. Cap., was an Italian Capuchin nun and mystic. She was canonized by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839
1683 Conyers Middleton an English clergyman. Mired in controversy and disputes, and with a reputation as an unbeliever, he was also considered one of the best stylists in English of his time
1714 George Whitefield an English Anglican preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain, and especially in the American colonies.
1715 Philippe de Noailles a younger brother of Louis de Noailles, and a more distinguished soldier than his brother. He was the son of Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, niece of Madame de Maintenon
1721 François Hemsterhuis a Dutch writer on aesthetics and moral philosophy.
1743 Marie-Madeleine Guimard a French ballerina who dominated the Parisian stage during the reign of Louis XVI. For twenty-five years she was the star of the Paris Opera. She made herself even more famous by her love affairs, especially by her long liaison with the Prince of Soubise. According to Edmond de Goncourt, when d'Alembert was asked why dancers like La Guimard made such prodigious fortunes, when singers did not, he responded, "It is a necessary consequence of the laws of motion"
1755 Anthony of Saxony a King of Saxony from the House of Wettin. He became known as Anton der Gütige
1756 Bartolomeo Pacca an Italian Cardinal, scholar and statesman as Cardinal Secretary of State.
1761 Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
1769 Frederick Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania and heir to the principality of Anhalt-Dessau.
1773 George Cayley a prolific English engineer and one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight
1776 Nikolay Kamensky a Russian general who outlived his father, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, by two years.
1793 Alexander Gordon Laing a Scottish explorer and the first European to reach Timbuktu via the north/south route.
1796 Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz a German Generalfeldmarschall, born at Eisenach.
1797 Ghalib the preeminent Indian Urdu and Persian poet during the last years of the Mughal Empire. He used his pen-names of Ghalib and Asad. His honorific was Dabir-ul-Mulk, Najm-ud-Daula. During his lifetime the Mughals were eclipsed and displaced by the British and finally deposed following the defeat of the Indian rebellion of 1857, events that he wrote Most notably, he wrote several ghazals during his life, which have since been interpreted and sung in many different ways by different people. Ghalib, the last great poet of the Mughal Era, is considered to be one of the most popular and influential poets of the Urdu language. Today Ghalib remains popular not only in India and Pakistan but also amongst diaspora communities around the world
1798 Nikolay Protasov a Russian general and Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Synod from 24 February 1836 to 16 January 1855.
1799 Serafín Estébanez Calderón a Spanish author, best known by the pseudonym of El Solitario. He was born in Málaga. His first literary effort was El Listen verde, a poem signed "Safinio" and written to celebrate the revolution of 1820. He was called to the bar, and settled for some time in Madrid, where he published a volume of verses in 1831 under the assumed name of "El Solitario." He obtained an exaggerated reputation as an Arabic scholar, and played a minor part in the political movements of his time. He died in Madrid in 1867. His most interesting work, Escenas andaluzas , is in an affected style, the vocabulary being partly archaic and partly provincial; but, despite its eccentric mannerisms, it is a vivid record of picturesque scenes and local customs. Estebanez Calderon is also the author of an unfinished history, De la conquista y pirdida de Portugal , issued posthumously under the editorship of his nephew, Antonio Canovas del Castillo
1800 John Goss (composer) an English organist, composer and teacher.
1801 Étienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pagès a French politician, born at Marseille.
1802 Gerardus Johannes Mulder a Dutch organic and analytical chemist.
1803 François-Marie-Thomas Chevalier de Lorimier a notary who fought as a Patriote and Frère chasseur for the independence of Lower Canada in the Lower Canada Rebellion. For these actions, he was incarcerated at the Montreal Pied-du-Courant Prison and was hanged at the site by the British authorities
1805 August Seebeck a scientist at the Technische Universität Dresden.
1806 Ramón Cabrera y Griñó a Carlist general of Spain.
1809 Alexandros Rizos Rangavis a Greek man of letters, poet and statesman.
1812 Yakov Grot a nineteenth-century Russian philologist of German extraction who worked at the University of Helsinki.
1821 Joseph Déjacque a French early anarcho-communist poet and writer. Déjacque was the first recorded person to employ the term libertarian for himself in a political sense, in a letter written in 1857 criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon for his sexist views on women, his support of individual ownership of the product of labor, and of a market economy, saying: "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."
1822 Louis Pasteur a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology"
1823 Mackenzie Bowell an English born Canadian politician who served as the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896.
1832 Pavel Tretyakov a Russian businessman, patron of art, collector, and philanthropist who gave his name to the Tretyakov Gallery and Tretyakov Drive in Moscow. His brother Sergey Tretyakov was also a famous patron of art and a philanthropist
1833 Federico Delpino an Italian botanist who made very important observations on the pollination of flowers by insects. It was he who first recognized the important concept of the pollination syndrome
1836 Walery Antoni Wróblewski a Polish politician, general of Paris Commune and commander of January Uprising.
1845 Ernst Huth a German naturalist and botanist.
1846 Eugen Baumann a German chemist. He was one of the first people to create polyvinyl chloride , and, together with Carl Schotten, he discovered the Schotten-Baumann reaction
1846 Zikmund Winter a Czech writer and historian. The author of many historical novels and essays, he maintained an interest in Bohemian life from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. He died in 1912 and he was buried in Vinohrady Cemetery
1849 José Manuel Pando President of Bolivia between October 1899 and August 1904. Born in Luribay , he studied medicine, joined the army during the War of the Pacific against Chile , and later dedicated himself to exploring his country's vast and thinly populated lowland forests. In the 1880s he joined the Liberal Party of Eliodoro Camacho , becoming its leader in 1894. Pando served as Congressional Representative from Chuquisaca during the administration of Severo Fernández and was the nucleus around which coalesced the increasingly more vocal and seditious efforts of the Liberal Party to topple the Conservatives from power
1849 Princess Alice of Parma (1849–1935) the youngest daughter of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry and Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies. Alice was thus a great-granddaughter of Charles X of France. Alice was a niece of Henri, comte de Chambord, disputedly King of France and Navarre from 2 to 9 August 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883
1851 Max Judd an American chess master.
1856 André Gedalge an influential French composer and teacher.
1858 Juan Luis Sanfuentes President of Chile between 1915 and 1920.
1860 Karel Kramář a Czech politician.
1860 Felix Dreyschock a German pianist, nephew of Alexander Dreyschock. He was a pupil of Friedrich Kiel, Wilhelm Taubert and Heinrich Ehrlich in Berlin, where he in 1883 began to give concerts. In Stockholm he performed successfully in 1886 and 1889, both as a virtuoso and composer. He wrote major and minor works for piano, violin, vocals, orchestral and etc
1861 Auguste Vaillant a French anarchist, most famous for his bomb attack on the French Chamber of Deputies on 9 December 1893. The government's reaction to this attack was the passing of the infamous repressive Lois scélérates
1863 Louis Lincoln Emmerson a Republican and the twenty-ninth governor of Illinois. He was born in Albion, Illinois on December 27, 1863. After completing his education in the Albion public school system, Emmerson moved to Mount Vernon, Illinois in 1883, and established a career in the mercantile business. He also was influential in the organization of the Mount Vernon Third National Bank, which occurred in 1901. Emmerson entered politics in 1912, as an unsuccessful candidate for state treasurer. However, four years later, he was victorious in his election for secretary of state, an office he held for twelve years. Emmerson won the 1928 Republican gubernatorial nomination by a margin of 63% to 37% over the incumbent governor, the corrupt Len Small, and was sworn into the governorship on January 14, 1929. During his tenure, he faced mounting difficulties resulting from the Great Depression. Taxpayers were granted some relief when legislation was adopted that eased penalties on overdue taxes and allowed for the issuance of emergency bonds. Also, a motor fuel-tax was instituted and used for improvements in the highway system, the first unemployment commission was initiated, and federal grants were sanctioned for the completion of the Lakes-to-the-Gulf Waterway. Emmerson did not seek reelection and left office on January 9, 1933, retiring from politics. Governor Louis Emmerson died on February 4, 1941, and was buried at the Oakwood Cemetery in Vernon, Illinois