Died on December 29

721 Empress Genmei the 43rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1170 Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II of England over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III
1380 Elizabeth of Poland Queen of Hungary Queen consort of Hungary and regent of Poland.
1543 Maria Salviati an Italian noblewoman, the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici and Jacopo Salviati. She married Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and was the mother of Cosimo I de Medici. Her husband died 30 November 1526, leaving her a widow at the age of 27. Salviati never remarried; after her husband's death she adopted the somber garb of a novice, which is how she is remembered today as numerous late portraits show her attired in black and white
1563 Sebastian Castellio a French preacher and theologian; and one of the first Reformed Christian proponents of religious toleration, freedom of conscience and thought.
1565 Queen Munjeong the wife of King Jungjong of Joseon.
1605 John Davis (English explorer) one of the chief English navigators and explorers under Elizabeth He led several voyages to discover the Northwest Passage, served as pilot and captain on both Dutch and English voyages to the East Indies. He discovered the Falkland Islands in August 1592
1606 Stephen Bocskay a Hungarian Calvinist nobleman, and Prince of Transylvania , who was an eager advocate of the Hungarian interests and became the leader of a revolt against the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor's effort to impose Roman Catholicism on the Kingdom of Hungary, when it was partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy. He established an alliance with the Ottoman Empire and, supported by the hajduks, compelled archduke Matthias to reaffirm and guarantee religious freedom for both Royal Hungary and Transylvania concluded by the Treaty of Vienna. As a recognized patron of Protestant Reformation, his statue can be found on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, Switzerland
1608 Martin Schalling the Younger a Protestant theologian, reformer and hymnwriter. He was the son of Martin Schalling the Elder
1619 Antoine Arnauld (lawyer) a famous lawyer in the Parlement de Paris, and a Counsellor of State under Henry A skilled orator, his most famous speech was in 1594 in favor of the University of Paris and against the Jesuits, decrying their lack of support for Henry IV, newly converted from Protestantism to Catholicism. He wrote a number of political pamphlets which were widely distributed. The best known of his writings is entitled Le franc et véritable discours du Roi sur le rétablissement qui lui est demandé des Jésuites. He was married to Catherine Marion de Druy and had twenty children by her, ten of whom survived him
1633 Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen a Dutch Golden Age painter.
1634 John Albert Vasa a Polish cardinal, and a Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków. He was the son of Swedish and Polish King Sigismund III Vasa and Austrian archduchess Constance of Austria
1661 Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant born near Rouen.
1665 Paweł Jan Sapieha a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman.
1684 Antoine Gombaud a French writer, born in Poitou. Although he was not a nobleman, he adopted the title Chevalier for the character in his dialogues who represented his own views. Later his friends began calling him by that name
1689 Thomas Sydenham an English physician. He was the author of Observationes Medicae which became a standard textbook of medicine for two centuries so that he became known as 'The English Hippocrates’. Among his many achievements was the discovery of a disease, Sydenham's Chorea, also known as St Vitus Dance
1696 Miguel de Molinos a Spanish mystic, the chief representative of the religious revival known as Quietism.
1724 Pavlo Polubotok a Cossack political and military leader and Acting Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine between 1722 and 1724.
1731 Brook Taylor best known for Taylor's theorem and the Taylor series.
1731 Louise Hippolyte Princess of Monaco the only Sovereign Princess of Monaco. She is the ancestor of the current reigning princely family of Monaco
1737 Joseph Saurin a French mathematician and a converted Protestant minister. He was the first to show how the tangents at the multiple points of curves could be determined by mathematical analysis. He was accused in 1712 by Jean-Baptiste Rousseau of being the actual author of defamatory verses that gossip had attributed to Rousseau
1743 Hyacinthe Rigaud a French baroque painter of Catalan origin whose career was based in Paris.
1772 Ernst Johann von Biron a Duke of Courland and Semigallia and regent of the Russian Empire.
1774 Antoniotto Botta Adorno a high officer of the Habsburg Monarchy and a plenipotentiary of the Austrian Netherlands.
1785 Johan Herman Wessel a Norwegian-Danish poet. Some of his satirical poems are still popular
1785 Johann Heinrich Rolle a German baroque composer.
1806 Charles Lennox 3rd Duke of Richmond a British politician and British Army officer. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary for a brief period. He was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and then in the ministry of William Pitt
1815 Saartjie Baartman the most famous of at least two Khoikhoi women who were exhibited as freak show attractions in 19th-century Europe under the name Hottentot Venus—"Hottentot" as the then-current name for the Khoi people, now considered an offensive term, and "Venus" in reference to the Roman goddess of love.
1820 Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon a French philanthropist, born in Paris.
1821 Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau a general from the Southern Netherlands, in the service of France and the Netherlands.
1825 Jacques-Louis David an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, heightened feeling harmonizing with the moral climate of the final years of the Ancien Régime
1826 Francesco Cancellieri an Italian writer, librarian, and erudite bibliophile.
1829 Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg the wife of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. Her husband was a notable general of the Napoleonic Wars and victor of the Battle of Aspern-Essling against Napoleon I of France
1834 Thomas Robert Malthus an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert
1838 Søren Christian Sommerfelt a Norwegian priest and botanist.
1846 Alexander Barrow a lawyer and United States Senator from Louisiana. He was a member of the Whig Party. He was the half-brother of Washington Barrow, the son of his father and his second wife
1847 Sergey Andreevsky a Russian writer, poet, literary critic and lawyer, best known for his The Book About Death , published posthumously in 1922. As a literary critic Andreevsky is credited with being the first to positively review Fyodor Dostoyevsky. His essay Karamazov Brothers is regarded as one of the best of its kind. Andreevsky did a lot to revive interest in early 19th-century Russian poetry, notably Yevgeny Baratynsky whom he for the first time introduced to the general readership
1849 Dionisio Aguado y García a Spanish classical guitarist and composer.
1853 Louis Visconti an Italian-born French architect and designer.
1858 Nicolas Charles Seringe a French physician and botanist born in Longjumeau.
1864 Salomon Müller a German naturalist. He was born in Heidelberg, and died in Freiburg im Breisgau
1865 Heinrich Anschütz a German actor.
1866 Józef Warszewicz a Polish botanist, plant and animal collector, and biologist.
1869 Victor Ruffy a Swiss politician.
1877 Angelica Singleton Van Buren the daughter-in-law of the 8th United States President Martin Van Buren. She was married to the President's son, Abraham Van Buren. She assumed the post of First Lady because the president's wife, Hannah Van Buren had died 17 years earlier and he remained unwed throughout the rest of his life. She is the youngest woman ever to hold the title of First Lady
1883 Francesco de Sanctis a leading Italian literary critic and scholar of Italian language and literature during the 19th century.
1884 Aleksey Uvarov a Russian archaeologist often considered to be the founder of the study of the prehistory of Russia.
1887 Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann an Estonian linguist who researched Uralic languages, mostly Estonian. Wiedemann was also a botanist
1889 Priscilla Cooper Tyler the daughter in law of John Tyler, the tenth President of the United States. She served as official White House hostess and official First Lady of the United States from September 10, 1842 to June 26, 1844, the second of Tyler's three First Ladies
1890 Spotted Elk the name of a chief of the Miniconjou, Lakota Sioux. He was a son of Miniconjou chief Lone Horn and became a chief upon his father's death. He was a highly renowned chief with skills in war and negotiations. A United States Army soldier, at Fort Bennett, coined the derogatory nickname Big Foot – not to be confused with Oglala Big Foot. In 1890, he was killed by the US Army at Wounded Knee Creek, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation , South Dakota, USA with at least 150 members of his tribe, in what became known as the Wounded Knee Massacre