Born on December 3

937 Siegfried Count of Merseburg the Count and Margrave of Merseburg from an unknown date before 934 until his death. He does not appear with the title of margrave in contemporary royal charters and diplomas, so the title was informal and never official
1265 Odofredus an Italian jurist. He was born in Ostia and moved to Bologna in which studied law under Jacobus Balduinus and Franciscus Accursius. After having practised as an advocate both in Italy and France, he became a law professor at Bologna in 1228. The commentaries on Roman law attributed to him are valuable as showing the growth of the study of law in Italy, and for their biographical details of the jurists of the 12th and 13th centuries. Odofredus died at Bologna in 1265
1368 Charles VI of France King of France from 1380 to his death. He was a member of the House of Valois
1447 Bayezid II the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. During his reign, Bayezid II consolidated the Ottoman Empire and thwarted a Safavid rebellion soon before abdicating his throne to his son, Selim He is most notable for evacuating Jews from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire
1483 Nicolaus von Amsdorf a German theologian and Protestant reformer.
1560 Jan Gruter a Flemish-born philologist, scholar, and librarian.
1590 Daniel Seghers particularly well known for his contributions to the genre of "flower garland" painting. His paintings were collected enthusiastically by courtly patrons and he had numerous imitators. He was the elder brother of the painter Gerard Seghers
1596 Nicola Amati an Italian luthier from Cremona.
1621 Bohuslav Balbín in large part responsible for the developed legend of Saint John of Nepomuk. Balbín graduated University of Olomouc
1684 Ludvig Holberg a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian double monarchy, who spent most of his adult life in Denmark. He was influenced by Humanism, the Enlightenment and the Baroque. Holberg is considered the founder of modern Danish and Norwegian literature, and is best known for the comedies he wrote in 1722–1723 for the Lille Grønnegade Theatre in Copenhagen. Holberg's works about natural and common law were widely read by many Danish law students over two hundred years, from 1736 to 1936
1722 Gregory Skovoroda a Ukrainian and Russian philosopher, poet, teacher and composer. Skovoroda was of a Cossack background in current day Ukraine, who lived in the Russian Empire and made important contributions to Russian philosophy and culture. He lived and worked in Sloboda Ukraine, which is today partly in modern Ukraine and partly in Russia. Skovoroda was so important for Russian culture and development of Russian philosophical thought, that he has been referred to as the "Russian Socrates."
1729 Antonio Soler a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras. He is best known for his keyboard sonatas, an important contribution to the harpsichord, fortepiano and organ repertoire
1731 Stefano Borgia The Most Rev. Stefano Cardinal Borgia was a senior Italian prelate, theologian, antiquarian and historian
1742 James Rennell an English geographer, historian and a pioneer of oceanography.
1752 Leonard Gyllenhaal a Swedish military officer and entomologist.
1753 Samuel Crompton an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry. Building on the work of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright he invented the spinning mule, a machine that revolutionised the industry worldwide
1755 Gilbert Stuart an American painter from Rhode Island.
1758 Louis Adam a French composer, music teacher, and piano virtuoso. His son, Adolphe Adam, was the composer of the score for the ballet Giselle
1760 Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen a German naturalist and forester. He took part in the production of "Teutsche Ornithologie oder Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Teutschlands in naturgetreuen Abbildungen und Beschreibungen" by Johann Conrad Susemihl
1761 Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély a French politician.
1764 Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel the first wife of Frederick of Württemberg and the mother of William I of Württemberg.
1766 Barbara Fritchie a Unionist during the Civil War. She was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and married John Casper Fritchie, a glove maker, on May 6, 1806
1776 Nicolas Charles Seringe a French physician and botanist born in Longjumeau.
1776 Yashwantrao Holkar H. Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shrimant Yashwant Rao Holkar Bahadur, was one of the Maharaja from Maratha Empire. He was born on 3 December 1776. He was a gifted military leader and educated in accountancy as well as literate in Persian and Marathi. Yashwant Rao has been often referred to as the "Napoleon of India"
1786 Robert Graham (botanist) a Scottish physician and botanist. He was the inaugural chair of botany at the University of Edinburgh. He was also physician to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh and Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
1795 Rowland Hill an English teacher, inventor and social reformer. He campaigned for a comprehensive reform of the postal system, based on the concept of Uniform Penny Post and his solution of prepayment, facilitating the safe, speedy and cheap transfer of letters. Hill later served as a government postal official, and he is usually credited with originating the basic concepts of the modern postal service, including the invention of the postage stamp
1797 Andrew Smith (zoologist) a Scottish surgeon, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist. He is considered the father of zoology in South Africa having described many species across a wide range of groups in his major work, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa
1800 France Prešeren a 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet, best known as the poet who has inspired virtually all later Slovene literature and has been generally acknowledged as the greatest Slovene classical author. He wrote some high quality epic poetry, for example the first Slovene ballad and the Slovene national epic. After death, he became the leading name of the Slovene literary canon
1802 Michael Seymour (Royal Navy officer) a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth.
1802 Constantin Guys a Dutch-born Crimean War correspondent, water color painter and illustrator for British and French newspapers.
1805 Agricol Perdiguier a French joiner, author and politician. He was known for his writings on the compagnons, or members of workers' brotherhoods, in which he preached peaceful relations between the brotherhoods, and the intellectual and moral improvement of their members. He became a deputy after the 1848 revolution, and was forced into exile after Napoleon III took power in 1851. His last years were spent in obscurity and poverty
1806 Henry A. Wise an American lawyer and politician from Virginia. He was a U.S. Representative and Governor of Virginia, and US Minster to Brazil. During the American Civil War, he was a general in the Confederate States Army. He was the father of U.S. Representatives Richard Alsop Wise and John Sergeant Wise
1810 Francisco Dueñas President of El Salvador 13 May 1851 - 30 January 1852, 1 February 1852 - 1 February 1854 and 1–12 February 1856 and 26 October 1863 - 15 April 1871. He was a member of the Conservative Party
1811 Eduard Bendemann a German painter.
1812 Hendrik Conscience a Belgian author. He is considered as the pioneer of Dutch-language literature in Flanders, writing at a time when Belgium was dominated by French among the upper classes, in literature and government. Conscience fought as a Belgian revolutionary in 1830 and was a notable writer in the Romanticist style popular in the early 19th century. He is best known for his romantic nationalist novel, De Leeuw van Vlaenderen , inspired by the victory of a Flemish peasant militia over French knights at the 1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs during the Franco-Flemish War
1815 Louis de Loménie a French scholar and essayist. He is best known for his biography of Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, and also edited this author's complete works
1816 Johannes Theodor Reinhardt a Danish zoologist and herpetologist. He was the son of Johannes Christopher Hagemann Reinhardt
1818 Max Joseph von Pettenkofer born in Lichtenheim, near Neuburg an der Donau, now part of Weichering. He was a nephew of Franz Xaver , who from 1823 was surgeon and apothecary to the Bavarian court and was the author of some chemical investigations on the vegetable alkaloids. He attended the Wilhelmsgymnasium, at Munich, then studied pharmacy and medicine the Ludwig Maximilian University, where he graduated M.D. in 1845. After working under Liebig at Gießen, Pettenkofer was appointed chemist to the Munich mint in 1845. Two years later he was chosen as extraordinary professor of chemistry in the medical faculty, in 1853 he was made a full professor, and in 1865 he became also professor of hygiene
1819 Abe Masahiro the chief senior councillor in the Japanese government at the time of the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry. Against the shogun's wishes, and the wishes of many other government officials, he worked to open Japan to the West, signing the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, and other unequal treaties shortly afterwards
1822 Korla Awgust Kocor a Sorbian composer and conductor.
1826 George B. McClellan a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1864, who later served as Governor of New Jersey. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points
1830 Francisco Menéndez Provisional President of El Salvador from 22 June 1885 to 1 March 1887, then President of El Salvador from 1 March 1887 until his death on 22 June 1890. General Francisco Menéndez was born in Ahuachapán, 3 December 1830 and died in San Salvador, 22 June 1890. His parents were José Eustachian Menéndez and Gabriela Valdivieso, independently wealthy landowners. In 1858, General Menéndez wed Bonifacia Salazar in an arranged marriage. At age forty-one he took an active role in the revolution of 1871 that ousted Francisco Dueñas, the mayor of Ahuachapán. At the age of fifty-five General Menéndez was named Provisional President of El Salvador 22 June 1885, receiving the supreme power of José Rosales
1830 Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical, biblical and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history; after only one day his hereditary peerage ended with his death
1833 Carlos Finlay a Hispanic-Cuban physician and scientist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever.
1838 Cleveland Abbe an American meteorologist and advocate of time zones.
1838 Octavia Hill an English social reformer, whose main concern was the welfare of the inhabitants of cities, especially London, in the second half of the nineteenth century. Born into a family with a strong commitment to alleviating poverty, she herself grew up in straitened circumstances owing to the financial failure of her father. With no formal schooling, she worked from the age of 14 for the welfare of working people
1838 Princess Louise of Prussia the second child and only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. She was the younger sister of Frederick III of Germany and aunt of Wilhelm II of Germany. Louise was seven years younger than Frederick and only two years older than his wife, Victoria, Princess Royal
1840 Jules Arsène Arnaud Claretie a French literary figure and director of the Théâtre Français.
1842 Phoebe Hearst an American philanthropist, feminist and suffragist. She was the mother of William Randolph Hearst
1842 Charles Alfred Pillsbury a U.S. flour industrialist, a co-founder and namesake of the Pillsbury Company.