Born on December 30

39 Titus Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father
904 Harun ibn Khumarawayh the fourth Tulunid ruler of Egypt. He succeed his elder brother Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh, who had been murdered by army chiefs. He left state affairs to the vizier Abu Ja'far ibn Ali, preferring to live a life of dissolute luxury. This led to a growing crisis in the country, since state finances could not be regulated and the army leaders gradually accrued more power to themselves
1204 Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam al Qurashi the first Ra’îs of Manûrqa.
1256 Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi al-Azdi, also known as Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi. [29 December 1256 – 1321, was a Moroccan mathematician, astronomer, Islamic scholar, Sufi, and a one-time astrologer
1371 Vasily I of Moscow the Grand Prince of Moscow , heir of Dmitry Donskoy. He ruled as a Great Horde vassal between 1389-1395, and again in 1412-1425. Mongol emir Timur's raid on the Volgan regions in 1395 resulted in the Golden Horde's state of anarchy for the next years and the independence of Moscow. In 1412, Vasily reinstated himself as the Horde's vassal. He had entered an alliance with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1392 and married Vytautas the Great's only daughter Sophia, though the alliance turned out to be fragile, since Vytautas would later capture Vyazma and Smolensk in 1403–1404
1642 Vincenzo da Filicaja an Italian poet.
1678 William Croft an English composer and organist.
1691 Conrad Friedrich Hurlebusch a German/Dutch composer and organist.
1722 Charles Yorke Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
1724 Louis-Jean-François Lagrenée a French rococo painter and student of Carle van Loo. He won the Grand Prix de Rome for painting in 1749 and was elected a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1755. His younger brother Jean-Jacques Lagrenée was also a painter
1729 Richard François Philippe Brunck a French classical scholar.
1746 François-André Vincent a French neoclassical painter.
1756 Paul Wranitzky a Moravian classical composer. His half brother, Antonín, was also a composer
1771 Alexander Nicolaus Scherer a German chemist and pharmacologist.
1780 Johann Friedrich Heinrich Schlosser a German jurist, writer and translator.
1781 José Manuel Restrepo Vélez an investigator of Colombian flora, political figure and historian. The Orchid genus Restrepia was named in his honor
1786 André Étienne d'Audebert de Férussac a French naturalist best known for his studies of molluscs.
1787 Otto von Kotzebue a Baltic German navigator in Russian service.
1805 Frederick Smith (entomologist) a British entomologist.
1816 William Alexander Henry a Canadian lawyer, politician, judge. He was one of the Fathers of Confederation and one of the first judges of the Supreme Court of Canada
1819 John W. Geary an American lawyer, politician, Freemason, and a Union general in the American Civil War. He was the final alcalde and first mayor of San Francisco, a governor of the Kansas Territory, and the 16th governor of Pennsylvania
1819 Theodor Fontane a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.
1824 Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky a Russian statesman, probably best remembered for having concluded the Li-Lobanov Treaty with China and for his publication of the Russian Genealogical Book.
1832 Stanisław Brzóska a Polish priest, general, one of leaders of the Polish insurgency and the last partisan of the January Uprising. He commanded the Polish detachment in South Podlasie and northern Lesser Poland, defeating the Russians in many skirmishes. He was captured eventually in April 1865, sentenced to death by the Russians and hanged publicly in Sokołów Podlaski in the presence of a crowd of 10,000 people
1834 Ernst Georg Ravenstein a German-English geographer cartographer and promoter of physical exercise. As a geographer he was less of a traveller than a researcher; his studies led mainly in the direction of cartography and the history of geography
1837 Ida Marie Lipsius a German writer and music historian.
1837 Giovanni Andrea Scartazzini a Protestant pastor and Italian-Swiss literary critic, best known for having translated into German and commented upon the Divine Comedy and the life of its author, Dante Alighieri.
1850 John Milne a British geologist and mining engineer who worked on a horizontal seismograph.
1851 Asa Griggs Candler an American business tycoon who made his fortune selling Coca-Cola. He also served as the 44th Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 1916 to 1919. Candler Field, the site of the present-day Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, was named after him, as is Candler Park in Atlanta
1852 Danail Nikolaev a Bulgarian officer and Minister of War on the eve of the Balkan wars. He was the first person to attain the highest rank in the Bulgarian military, General of the infantry. He was also known as "the patriarch of the Bulgarian military"
1853 André Messager a French composer, organist, pianist, conductor and administrator. His stage compositions included ballets and 30 opéra comiques and operettas, among which Véronique had lasting success, with Les p'tites Michu and Monsieur Beaucaire also enjoying international success
1856 Ignaty Potapenko a Russian writer and playwright.
1857 Sylvio Lazzari a French composer of Austrian origin.
1859 Josef Bohuslav Foerster a Czech composer of classical music. He is often referred to as B. Foerster. The surname is sometimes spelled Förster
1860 Jonas Jablonskis a distinguished Lithuanian linguist and one of the founders of the standard Lithuanian language. He used the pseudonym Rygiškių Jonas, taken from the small town named Rygiškiai where he spent his childhood
1865 Rudyard Kipling an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and stories for children. He was born in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, and was taken by his family to England when he was five years old
1869 Ōzutsu Man'emon a sumo wrestler from Shiroishi, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. He was the sport's 18th yokozuna
1869 Nikolai Legat a dancer with the Russian Imperial Ballet from 1888 to 1914 and was the main successor to the rôles of the great ballet dancer, Pavel Gerdt. Legat later held duties of a balletmaster in Russia, teaching and passing on the legacy of the repertoire of that company, namely the work of the prolific choreographer and great balletmaster, Marius Petipa
1869 Stephen Leacock a Canadian teacher, political scientist, writer, and humourist. Between the years 1910 and 1925, he was the most widely read English-speaking author in the world. He is known for his light humour along with criticisms of people's follies. The Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour was named in his honour
1872 William Larned an American World 1 male tennis player.
1873 James McBride (footballer) a Scottish footballer, who played for Liverpool during the latter half of the 19th century.
1873 Al Smith an American statesman who was elected Governor of New York four times and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the foremost urban leader of the efficiency-oriented Progressive Movement and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as governor in the 1920s. He was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall machine that controlled New York City's politics; was a strong opponent of Prohibition and was the first Catholic nominee for President. His candidacy mobilized Catholic votes—especially women who previously had not voted. It also mobilized the anti-Catholic vote, which was strongest in the South
1874 Donald MacKenzie (rower) a Canadian rower who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
1874 Janko Jesenský a Slovak lower nobleman of the House of Jeszenszky, poet, prose writer, translator, and politician. He was a prominent member of the Slovak national movement
1875 Jean-Guy Gautier a French rugby union player who competed in the 1900 Summer Olympics.
1877 Semion Abugov a Jewish, Russian and Soviet painter and art educator, who lived and worked in Leningrad, a member of the Leningrad Union of Artists, professor of the Repin Institute of Arts, regarded as one of the leading art educator of the Leningrad school of painting.
1878 William Aberhart a Canadian politician and the seventh Premier of Alberta between 1935 and 1943. The Social Credit party believed the reason for the depression was that people did not have enough money to spend, so the government should give everyone $25/month to stimulate the economy. Aberhart also campaigned for and instituted several anti-poverty and debt relief programs during his premiership
1879 Ramana Maharshi widely acknowledged as one of the outstanding Hindu gurus of modern times. He was born Venkataraman Iyer, in Tiruchuli, Tamil Nadu, South India, and given the name Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi in 1907, by one of his first devotees, Ganapati Muni. This would be the name by which he became known to the world
1880 Alfred Einstein a German-American musicologist and music editor. He is best known for being the editor of the first major revision of the Köchel catalogue, which was published in the year 1936. The Köchel catalogue is the extensive catalogue of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Einstein was known to have had such a depth of familiarity with Mozart that he had something pertinent to say about every piece Mozart wrote
1883 Grigori Panteleimonov a Russian sport shooter who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics.