Died on December 30

274 Pope Felix I the Bishop of Rome or Pope from 5 January 269 to his death in 274.
1115 Theodoric II Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1070 to his death. He was the son and successor of Gerhard and Hedwige of Namur. He is sometimes numbered Theodoric I if the dukes of the House of Ardennes, who ruled in Upper Lorraine from 959 to 1033, are ignored in favour of the dukes of Lower Lorraine as predecessors of the later dukes of Lorraine
1178 Pribislav of Mecklenburg an Obotrite prince and the first Prince of Mecklenburg.
1436 Louis III Elector Palatine an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1410–1436.
1460 Edmund Earl of Rutland the fifth child and second surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He was born in Rouen
1460 Richard of York 3rd Duke of York a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father and a great-great-great-grandson of that king through his mother. He inherited great estates, and served in various offices of state in France at the end of the Hundred Years' War, and in England, ultimately governing the country as Lord Protector during Henry VI's madness. His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become King on Henry's death Within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle
1525 Jakob Fugger a major merchant, mining entrepreneur and banker of Europe. He was a descendant of the Fugger merchant family located in the Free Imperial City of Augsburg, where he was also born and later also elevated through marriage to Grand Burgher of Augsburg. Within a few decades he expanded the family firm to a business operating in all of Europe. He began his education at the age of 14 in Venice, which also remained his main residence until 1487. At the same time he was a cleric and held several prebendaries, even though he never lived in a monastery
1532 Krzysztof Szydłowiecki a Polish noble , magnate, Count of Szydłowiec.
1568 Roger Ascham an English scholar and didactic writer, famous for his prose style, his promotion of the vernacular, and his theories of education. He acted as Princess Elizabeth's tutor in Greek and Latin between 1548 and 1550, and served in the administrations of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
1572 Galeazzo Alessi an Italian architect from Perugia, known throughout Europe for his distinctive style based on his enthusiasm for ancient architecture. He studied drawing for civil and military architecture under the direction of Giovanni Battista Caporali
1573 Giovanni Battista Giraldi an Italian novelist and poet. He appended the nickname Cinthio to his name and is commonly referred to by that name
1591 Pope Innocent IX Pope from 29 October to 30 December 1591. Prior to his short papacy, he had been a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV
1596 Manuel de Sá a Portuguese Jesuit theologian and exegete.
1621 Job of Manyava a Ukrainian Orthodox saint and an Orthodox clerical activist. He was a founder of Manyava Skete, a famous cell monastery in Ukraine
1640 John Francis Regis a French priest of the Society of Jesus, recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. His feast day is 16 June
1644 Jan Baptist van Helmont a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician. He worked during the years just after Paracelsus and iatrochemistry, and is sometimes considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry". Van Helmont is remembered today largely for his ideas on spontaneous generation, his 5-year tree experiment, and his introduction of the word "gas" into the vocabulary of scientists
1662 Ferdinand Charles Archduke of Austria the Archduke of Further Austria, including the Tyrol, from 1646 to 1662.
1662 Princess Anne Élisabeth of France the second child and first daughter of Louis XIV of France and his Spanish wife Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain.
1695 Samuel Morland an English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, a polymath credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power.
1768 Ruth Blay executed by hanging after being convicted of concealing the body of her illegitimate child in the floor of the barn next to the house in which she was staying. She was granted 3 reprieves before the execution. Blay was the last female executed by New Hampshire
1769 Nicholas Taaffe 6th Viscount Taaffe an Irish-born courtier and soldier who served the Habsburgs in Lorraine and Austria.
1777 Maximilian III Joseph Elector of Bavaria Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.
1781 John Needham an English biologist and Roman Catholic priest.
1788 Francesco Zuccarelli an Italian painter of the late Baroque period.
1793 Noël Martin Joseph de Necker a Belgian physician, and botanist.
1797 Juan de Ayala a Spanish naval officer who played a significant role in the European exploration of California, since he and the crew of his ship the San Carlos are the first Europeans known to have entered the San Francisco Bay.
1798 Anne-Pierre marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac a French general and writer.
1808 José Moñino 1st Count of Floridablanca a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca
1815 Oluf Gerhard Tychsen a German Orientalist and Hebrew scholar. He is known today as one of the founding fathers of Islamic numismatics
1816 Louis Henri Loison briefly joined the French Army in 1787 and after the French Revolution became a junior officer. Blessed with military talent and courage, he rapidly rose to general officer rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. He also got into difficulties because of his fondness for plundering. In late 1795 he helped Napoleon Bonaparte crush a revolt against the government. After a hiatus, he returned in 1799 to fight in Switzerland where he earned another promotion. In 1800 he commanded a division under Napoleon in the Marengo Campaign
1832 Ludwig Devrient a German actor, noted for his playing in the works of Shakespeare and Schiller.
1867 Sarah Booth an English actress.
1870 Juan Prim 1st Marquis of los Castillejos a Spanish general and statesman.
1873 Henry Baxter a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. At the Battle of Gettysburg, his brigade resisted a Confederate assault from parts of Maj. Gen. Robert Rodes's division, slaughtering hundreds in a surprise attack on Colonel Alfred Iverson's brigade, and held the north flank of the Union position for much of the day before retiring due to lack of ammunition. He was wounded four times during the war. He later served as President Grant's Minister to Honduras
1876 Friedrich Wilhelm Schultz a German pharmacist and botanist who was a native of Zweibrücken.
1879 Jean Baptiste Boisduval a French lepidopterist, botanist, and physician. He developed the Boisduval scale and identified many new species of butterflies. One of the most celebrated lepidopterists of France, he was the co-founder of the Société Entomologique de France. Early in his career, he was interested in Coleoptera and allied himself with both Lacordaire and Latreille. He was the curator of the Pierre Françoise Marie Auguste Dejean collection in Paris and described many species of beetles, as well as butterflies and moths, resulting from the voyages of the Astrolabe, the expedition ship of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse and the "Coquille", that of Louis Isidore Duperrey. Boisduval's Elateridae are in the Natural History Museum, London and the types of Curculionidae in Brussels Natural History Museum. His Lepidoptera were sold to Charles Oberthür. The Sphingidae are in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1879 Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre Baron of Santo Ângelo a Brazilian Romantic writer and painter, as well as an architect, diplomat and professor. He is patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
1880 Achille Guenée a French lawyer and entomologist.
1880 Princess Marie of Hesse-Kassel the consort of George, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
1882 Wojciech Jastrzębowski a Polish scientist, naturalist and inventor, professor of botanic, physics, zoology and horticulture at Instytut Rolniczo-Leśny in Marymont in Warsaw. He was one of the fathers of ergonomics
1889 Henry Yule a Scottish Orientalist. He published many travel books including translations of the work of Marco Polo and Mirabilia by the 14th century Dominican FriarJordanus. He was also the compiler of a dictionary of Anglo-Indian terms, the Hobson-Jobson along with Arthur Coke Burnell
1893 Samuel Baker a British explorer, officer, naturalist, big game hunter, engineer, writer and abolitionist. He also held the titles of Pasha and Major-General in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. He served as the Governor-General of the Equatorial Nile Basin between Apr. 1869 – Aug. 1873, which he established as the Province of Equatoria. He is mostly remembered as the discoverer of Lake Albert, as an explorer of the Nile and interior of central Africa, and for his exploits as a big game hunter in Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Baker wrote a considerable number of books and published articles. He was a friend of King Edward VII, who as Prince of Wales, visited Baker with Queen Alexandra in Egypt. Other friendships were with explorers Henry Morton Stanley, Roderick Murchison, John Speke and James Grant, with the ruler of Egypt Pasha Ismail The Magnificent, Major-General Charles George Gordon and Maharaja Duleep Singh
1894 Amelia Bloomer an American women's rights and temperance advocate. Even though she did not create the women's clothing reform style known as bloomers, her name became associated with it because of her early and strong advocacy
1896 José Rizal a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered as one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines. He was the author of Noli Me Tángere, El Filibusterismo, and a number of poems and essays. He was executed on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army
1896 Édouard-Charles Fabre Archbishop of Montreal in 1886 and of Sherbrooke and Saint-Hyacinthe in 1887.
1899 James Paget best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours and Lectures on Surgical Pathology. While most people recall Paget's disease refers to bone, two other diseases were also named after him: Paget's disease of the nipple , and extramammary Paget's disease. Also named for him is Paget's abscess
1899 Heinrich Ehrlich a pianist, composer and writer on music. As a composer, he came forward with a Piano Concerto and Piano Variations on an Original Theme, being one of the first composers to collect Romanian folk melodies
1900 William Pole an English engineer.
1905 Job Bicknell Ellis a pioneering North American mycologist known for his study of the Ascomycetes, especially the grouping of fungi called the Pyrenomycetes. Born and raised in New York, he worked as a teacher and farmer before developing an interest in mycology. He collected specimens extensively, and together with his wife, prepared 200,000 sets of dried fungal samples that were sent out to subscribers in series between 1878 and 1894. Together with colleagues William Kellerman and Benjamin Matlack Everhart, he founded the Journal of Mycology in 1885, forerunner to the modern journal Mycologia. He described over 4000 species of fungi, and his collection of over 100,000 specimens is currently housed at the herbarium of the New York Botanical Gardens. Ellis had over 100 taxa of fungi named in his honor
1905 Frank Steunenberg the fourth Governor of the State of Idaho, serving from 1897 until 1901. He is perhaps best known for his 1905 assassination by one-time union member Harry Orchard, who was also a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners' Association. Orchard attempted to implicate leaders of the radical Western Federation of Miners in the assassination. The labor leaders were found not guilty in two trials, but Orchard spent the rest of his life in prison