Born on December 4

34 Persius a Roman poet and satirist of Etruscan origin. In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic wisdom and a strong criticism for the abuses of his contemporaries. His works, which became very popular in the Middle Ages, were published after his death by his friend and mentor the stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus
1428 Bernard VII Lord of Lippe the ruler of the Lordship of Lippe from 1429 until his death. Because of the many bloody feuds in which he was involved, he was nicknamed "the Bellicose". He was the longest-ever ruling European nobleman
1505 Gennady of Novgorod Archbishop of Novgorod the Great and Pskov from 1484 to 1504.
1555 Heinrich Meibom (poet) born at Barntrup in Westphalia.
1580 Nabeshima Katsushige a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born to Nabeshima Naoshige, he became lord of Saga-han
1585 John Cotton (minister) a clergyman in England and the American colonies, and by most accounts was the preeminent minister and theologian of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Following five years of study at Trinity College, Cambridge, and another nine years at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he had already built a reputation as a scholar and outstanding preacher when he accepted the position of minister at Saint Botolph's Church in Boston, Lincolnshire in 1612. As a Puritan he wanted to do away with the ceremony and vestments associated with the established Anglican Church, and preach in a simpler, more consensual manner. Though he felt the English church needed significant reforms, he nevertheless was adamant about not separating from it; his preference was to change it from within. While many ministers were removed from their pulpits for their puritan practices, Cotton thrived at Botolph's for nearly 20 years because of supportive aldermen, lenient bishops, and his very conciliatory and gentle demeanor. By 1632, however, the Anglican church had greatly increased its pressure on the non-conforming clergy, and Cotton was forced to go into hiding. The following year he and his wife boarded a ship for New England
1591 Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble, komorzy stolowicki from 1614, poznanski from 1625, krajczy of the queen from 1617, krajczy or Lithuania from 1633, podczaszy of Lithuania from 1638, voivode of Nowogródek from 1642, member of Knights Hospitaller , patron of Knight Hospitallers centers in Poznań and Stwołowce.
1595 Jean Chapelain a French poet and critic during the Grand Siècle, best known for his role as an organizer and founding member of the Académie française. Chapelain acquired considerable prestige as a literary critic, but his own major work, an epic poem about Joan of Arc called "La Pucelle," was lampooned by his contemporary Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
1646 Alain Emmanuel de Coëtlogon a Marshal of France during the reign of Louis XIV and Louis XV.
1647 Daniel Eberlin a German Baroque composer and Kapellmeister.
1660 André Campra a French composer and conductor.
1667 Michel Pignolet de Montéclair a French composer of the baroque period.
1670 John Aislabie a British politician, notable for his involvement in the South Sea Bubble and for creating the water garden at Studley Royal.
1689 Gottfried Lengnich an 18th-century historian, lawyer and politician. He became known for writing the 9-volume History of Royal Prussia and for teaching Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland
1711 Barbara of Portugal an Infanta of Portugal and later Queen of Spain as wife of Ferdinand VI of Spain.
1713 Gasparo Gozzi an Venetian critic and dramatist.
1735 Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti an Austrian naturalist of Italian origin.
1750 Henri Grégoire a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader. He was an ardent abolitionist and supporter of universal suffrage, and was a founding member of the Bureau des longitudes, the Institut de France, and the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
1767 John Adams (mutineer) the last survivor of the Bounty mutineers who settled on Pitcairn Island in January 1790, the year after the mutiny. His real name was John Adams, but he used the name Alexander Smith until he was discovered in 1808 by Captain Mayhew Folger of the American whaling ship Topaz. His children used the surname "Adams"
1777 Juliette Récamier a French society leader, whose salon drew Parisians from the leading literary and political circles of the early 19th century.
1783 Christoph Friedrich Otto a German gardener and botanist.
1784 Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the first wife of King Christian VIII from 1806 until 1810, before he became King of Denmark. She was a daughter of Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the seventh of the couple's surviving children born at Ludwigslust's court
1795 Thomas Carlyle a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of its time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era. One of those conferences resulted in his famous work On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History where he explains that the key role in history lies in the actions of the "Great Man", claiming that "History is nothing but the biography of the Great Man"
1795 Joseph Toussaint Reinaud a French orientalist.
1798 Jules Armand Dufaure a French statesman.
1800 Emil Aarestrup a Danish poet.
1800 Sir William Williams 1st Baronet of Kars a Nova Scotian and renowned military leader for the British during the Victorian era.
1801 Karl Ludwig Michelet born and died at Berlin.
1803 Knut Jungbohn Clement a Danish linguist.
1804 James Hutchinson Woodworth a former member of the Illinois State Senate and the Illinois State House of Representatives, served as a Chicago Alderman, was elected to consecutive terms as Mayor of Chicago, Illinois as an Independent Democrat, and served one term in the US House of Representatives as a member of the Republican Party. Woodworth completed his career in Chicago as one of the city's most noteworthy bankers. He is a member of the Woodworth political family
1806 Philipp Wilhelm Wirtgen a German botanist and teacher born in Neuwied. He was the father of botanist Ferdinand Paul Wirtgen
1806 Johann Friedrich Franz Burgmüller a German pianist and composer.
1808 Joseph Gabet a French Catholic missionary belonging to the Congregation of the Mission Order, known as the Lazarites. He was active in Northern China and then Mongolia. He travelled to Tibet with Évariste Huc. After returning to Europe he was subsequently sent by the Order to Brazil, where he died in Rio de Janeiro in 1853
1808 Duke Maximilian Joseph in Bavaria a member of a junior branch of the House of Wittelsbach and a promoter of Bavarian folk-music. He is most famous today as the father of Empress Elisabeth of Austria
1812 Oliver Loving a rancher and cattle drover. Together with Charles Goodnight, he developed the Goodnight-Loving Trail. He was mortally wounded by Indians while on a cattle drive. Loving County, Texas, the smallest county in the United States in population, is named in his honor
1817 Leopold Arends a German stenographer and inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent, especially in Sweden.
1817 Thomas Thomson (botanist) a Scottish surgeon with the British East India Company before becoming a botanist. He was a friend of Joseph Dalton Hooker and helped write the first volume of Flora Indica
1817 Nikoloz Baratashvili a Georgian poet, one of the first Georgians to marry a modern nationalism with European Romanticism and to introduce "Europeanism" into Georgian literature. Despite his early death and a tiny literary heritage of fewer than forty short lyrics, one extended poem, and a few private letters, Baratashvili is considered to be the high point of Georgian Romanticism. He was referred as the "Georgian Byron"
1821 Wilhelm Tempel a German astronomer who worked in Marseille until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, then later moved to Italy.
1822 Frances Power Cobbe an Irish writer, social reformer, anti-vivisection activist, and leading women's suffrage campaigner. She founded a number of animal advocacy groups, including the National Anti-Vivisection Society in 1875, and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection in 1898, and was a member of the executive council of the London National Society for Women's Suffrage
1825 Aleksey Pleshcheyev a radical Russian poet of the 19th century, one of the Petrashevsky Circle.
1828 Adam Stanisław Sapieha a Polish nobleman, landlord, politician.
1834 Carl Lange (physician) a Danish physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology.
1835 Samuel Butler (novelist) an iconoclastic Victorian-era English author who published a variety of works. Two of his most famous pieces are the Utopian satire Erewhon and a semi-autobiographical novel published posthumously, The Way of All Flesh. He is also known for examining Christian orthodoxy, substantive studies of evolutionary thought, studies of Italian art, and works of literary history and criticism. Butler made prose translations of the Iliad and Odyssey, which remain in use to this day
1840 Odilon Lannelongue a French surgeon who was a native of Castéra-Verduzan.
1842 Franz Xavier Wernz Rev. Franz Xavier Wernz, S.J. was the twenty-fifth Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was born in Rottweil, Württemberg
1848 Franz Rumpler an Austrian genre painter and professor at the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts. Among his students were Kolo Moser, Franz Cižek, and Rudolf Jettmar
1849 Ernesto Köhler an Italian flautist and composer. He was considered one of the best flautists of his era
1849 Carlos María Fitz-James Stuart 16th Duke of Alba a Spanish nobleman.
1857 Ida Aalberg the most notable and internationally known Finnish actress of her time.