Died on December 4

530 Cyrus the Great the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched from parts of the Balkans and Thrace-Macedonia in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. He also proclaimed what has been identified by scholars and archaeologists to be the oldest known declaration of human rights, which was transcribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 This view has been criticized by some as a misunderstanding of what they claim to be the Cylinder's generic nature as a traditional statement of the sort that new monarchs may make at the beginning of their reign
749 John of Damascus a Syrian monk and priest. Born and raised in Damascus, he died at his monastery, Mar Saba, near Jerusalem
771 Carloman I the king of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771. He was the second surviving son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon and was a younger brother of Charlemagne. Little is known of him, except such as touches upon his more famous father and brother
811 Charles the Younger the second son of Charlemagne and the first by his second wife, Hildegard of Swabia. When Charlemagne divided his empire among his sons, his son Charles was designated King of the Franks
1075 Anno II Archbishop of Cologne from 1056 to 1075.
1131 Omar Khayyám a sufi mystic, Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, and Islamic theology
1133 Bernard degli Uberti an abbot of Vallombrosa, a bishop of Parma, papal legate, and a cardinal. A member of the noble Uberti family of Florence, he became a Vallumbrosan monk. He became abbot of San Salvi and was eventually elected the general-superior of the congregation. Pope Urban II made him a cardinal in 1097, and Bernard also served as bishop of Parma
1137 Lothair II Holy Roman Emperor Duke of Saxony as well as King of Germany from 1125 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death. The son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufen duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia. He died whilst returning from a successful campaign against the Norman Kingdom of Sicily
1188 Berthold I of Istria the Margrave of Istria as Berthold I from 1173 until 1188. He was the son of Berthold II, Count of Andechs, Dießen, Plassenberg and Stein and his first wife Sophie of Istria
1214 William the Lion sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707
1270 Theobald II of Navarre Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1253 until his death.
1300 Albert III Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel a Margrave of Brandenburg. He was a member of the Brandenburg-Salzwedel branch of the House of Ascania, which existed from 1266 to 1317. He was a son of Otto III and his wife, Beatrice of Bohemia
1334 Pope John XXII Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334. He was the second Avignon Pope, elected by a conclave in Lyon assembled by King Louis X's brother Philip, the Count of Poitiers, later King Philip V of France. Like his predecessor, Clement V, he centralized power and income in the Papacy and lived a princely life in Avignon. He opposed the political policies of Louis IV of Bavaria as Holy Roman Emperor, which prompted Louis to invade Italy and set up an antipope, Nicholas Pope John XXII faced controversy in theology involving his views on the Beatific Vision, and he opposed the Franciscan understanding of the poverty of Christ and his apostles. He canonized Thomas Aquinas
1340 Henry Burghersh a younger son of Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh , and a nephew of Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, and was educated in France.
1371 Reginald III Duke of Guelders Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen from 1343 to 1361, and again in 1371. He was the son of Reginald II of Guelders and of Eleanor of Woodstock, daughter of Edward II of England
1371 Stephen Uroš V of Serbia king of the Serbian Empire as co-regent of his father Stefan Uroš IV Dušan Silni and then Emperor.
1393 Frederick Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria from 1375. He was the second son of Stephen II and Elizabeth of Sicily
1408 Valentina Visconti Duchess of Orléans a Sovereign Countess of Vertus, and Duchess consort of Orléans as the wife of Louis de Valois, Duke of Orléans, the younger brother of King Charles VI of France.
1456 Charles I Duke of Bourbon the oldest son of John I, Duke of Bourbon and Marie, Duchess of Auvergne.
1459 Adolphus VIII Count of Holstein the mightiest vassal of the Danish realm.
1574 Georg Joachim Rheticus a mathematician, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher. He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables and as Nicolaus Copernicus's sole pupil. He facilitated the publication of his master's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
1585 John Willock a native of Ayrshire and was educated at the University of Glasgow.
1603 Marten de Vos a leading Antwerp painter and draughtsman in the late sixteenth century.
1609 Alexander Hume a Scottish poet.
1628 Thomas Platter the Younger a Swiss-born physician, traveller and diarist, the son of the humanist Thomas Platter the Elder.
1642 Cardinal Richelieu a French clergyman, noble and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered
1649 William Drummond of Hawthornden a Scottish poet.
1679 Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy
1680 Thomas Bartholin a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian. He is best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, being the first to describe it scientifically
1681 Maurice Duke of Saxe-Zeitz a duke of Saxe-Zeitz and member of the House of Wettin.
1689 Saliha Dilaşub Sultan the Serbian wife of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I and Valide Sultan to their son Suleiman II.
1696 Empress Meishō the 109th Imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1727 Princess Sophia Wilhelmina of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld by birth, and Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt by marriage.
1732 John Gay an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for The Beggar's Opera , a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names
1749 Claudine Guérin de Tencin a French salonist and author. She was the mother of Jean le Rond d'Alembert, philosophe and contributor to the Encyclopédie, though she left him on the steps of the Saint-Jean-le-Rond de Paris church a few days after his birth
1772 Dov Ber of Mezeritch a disciple of Rabbi Yisrael Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism, and was chosen as his successor to lead the early movement. Rabbi Dov Ber is regarded as the first systematic exponent of the mystical philosophy underlying the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, and through his teaching and leadership, the main architect of the movement. He established his base in Mezhirichi , which moved the centre of Hasidism from the Baal Shem Tov's Medzhybizh , where he focused his attention on raising a close circle of great disciples to spread the movement. After his death, avoiding the unified leadership of the first two generations, this third generation of leadership took their different interpretations and disseminated across appointed regions of Eastern Europe. Under the inspiration of their teacher, this rapidly spread Hasidism beyond the Ukraine, to Poland, Galicia and Russia
1773 Anton Losenko a Ukrainian neoclassical painter and academician who lived in Imperial Russia and who specialized in historical subjects and portraits. He was one of the founders of the Imperial Russian historical movement in painting
1798 Luigi Galvani an Italian physician, physicist and philosopher who lived and died in Bologna. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark.:67–71 This was one of the first forays into the study of bioelectricity, a field that still studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system
1820 Samuel Rousseau a British oriental scholar and printer. He compiled the first Arabic-English dictionary and translated and printed the first English language editions of several important Arabic works. He was related to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the philosopher, being descended from Jacob Rousseau, Jean-Jacques' great uncle, who had been sent from Geneva to London to look after the family watchmaking business there and who had married into the Huguenot community and become a British subject
1822 Friedrich Schlichtegroll a teacher, scholar and the first biographer of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. His brief account of Mozart's life was published in a volume of twelve obituaries Schlichtegroll prepared and called Nekrolog auf das Jahr 1791. The book appeared in 1793, two years after Mozart's death
1823 Luigi Acquisti an Italian sculptor mainly known for his works in the neoclassical style.
1828 Robert Jenkinson 2nd Earl of Liverpool an English politician and both the youngest and longest-serving Prime Minister since 1806. As Prime Minister, Liverpool called for repressive measures at the local level to maintain order after the riots of 1819. He dealt smoothly with the Prince Regent when King George III was incapacitated. He also steered the country through the period of radicalism and unrest that followed the Napoleonic Wars. He favoured commercial and manufacturing interests as well as the landed interest. He sought a compromise of the heated issue of Catholic emancipation. The revival of the economy strengthened his political position. By the 1820s he was the leader of a reform faction of "Liberal Tories" who lowered the tariff, abolished the death penalty for many offenses, and reformed the criminal law. By the time of his death in office, however, the Tory Party was ripping itself apart. John Derry says he was
1841 David Daniel Davis M.D. F.R.C.P. was a British physician
1845 Gregor MacGregor a Scottish soldier, adventurer, land speculator, and colonizer who fought in the South American struggle for independence. After his return to Britain in 1820, he claimed to be cacique of Poyais , a fictional Central American country that MacGregor had invented which, with his promotional efforts, drew investors and eventually colonists
1845 Antoni Jan Ostrowski a Polish noble , landowner, political and economic activist, general and publicist.
1848 Joseph Mohr an Austrian Roman Catholic priest and writer, who wrote the words to the Christmas carol "Silent Night".
1850 William Sturgeon an English physicist and inventor who made the first electromagnets, and invented the first practical English electric motor.
1860 Prince Leopold Count of Syracuse a prince of the Two Sicilies and known as the , Count of Syracuse.
1864 Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Dessau branch.
1865 Adolph Kolping a German Catholic priest, who has been beatified by the Catholic Church. He was a leader in providing social support for young workers in the cities of industrial Germany, and worldwide