Born on December 6

846 Hasan al-Askari the eleventh and the penultimate Imam of the Twelver Shia Muslims. His title al-Askari is derived from the Arabic word Asker for army. He was given this title because he lived in Samarra, a garrison town. He was 22, when his father was killed. The period of his Imāmate was six years and he died at the age of 28 and was buried in Samarra
1281 Kirill III of Kiev a church figure, and the metropolitan of Kiev. close to a Horde Meng-king Timur. In Russian chronicles record that King Meng-Timur and Metropolitan Kirill sent Sarayskiy Bishop Theognostus to the Emperor Michael VIII and the Patriarch of Constantinople as their joint envoy with letters and gifts from each of them. This embassy is probably held around 1278, as Feognost returned to Barn in 1279
1285 Ferdinand IV of Castile a king of Castile and León and Galicia. He was a son of Sancho El Bravo and his wife Maria de Molina
1305 Maximus Metropolitan of all Rus the Metropolitan of Kiev who moved the see of Russian metropolitans to Vladimir-on-Kliazma. In spite of the move, the metropolitans were officially known as "Metropolitan of Kiev and All Rus'" until the establishment of autocephaly under Jonah in 1448
1309 Humphrey de Bohun 6th Earl of Hereford a Lord High Constable of England. He distinguished himself as a captain in the Breton campaigns of the Hundred Years' War, winning the victories of Morlaix and La Roche-Derrien
1421 Henry VI of England King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Until 1437, his realm was governed by regents. Contemporaneous accounts described him as peaceful and pious, not suited for the dynastic wars, such as the Wars of the Roses, which commenced during his reign. His periods of insanity and his inherent benevolence eventually required his wife, Margaret of Anjou, to assume control of his kingdom, which contributed to his own downfall, the collapse of the House of Lancaster, and the rise of the House of York
1478 Baldassare Castiglione an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author.
1520 Barbara Radziwiłł Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as consort to Sigismund II Augustus.
1531 Vespasiano I Gonzaga an Italian nobleman, diplomat, writer, military engineer and condottiero. He is remembered as a patron of the arts and the founder of Sabbioneta, a town in Lombardy designed according to the Renaissance principles of the "ideal city"
1550 Orazio Vecchi an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. He is most famous for his madrigal comedies, particularly L'Amfiparnaso
1586 Niccolò Zucchi an Italian Jesuit, astronomer, and physicist.
1592 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Newcastle an English polymath and aristocrat, having been a poet, equestrian, playwright, swordsman, politician, architect, diplomat and soldier. Born into the very wealthy Cavendish family at Handsworth in the county of Yorkshire, William's family had a good relationship with the ruling Stuart monarchy and began to gather prominence after he was invested as a Knight of the Bath and soon inherited his father's Northern England estates
1608 George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle an English soldier, a politician and was the key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
1609 Nicholas Francis Duke of Lorraine briefly Duke of Lorraine and Duke of Bar for a few months in 1634, spanning the time between the abdication of his older brother and his own resignation. He was therefore Duke during the invasion of Lorraine by the French in the Thirty Years War
1631 Antonio Zanchi an Italian painter of the Baroque, active mainly in Venice, but his prolific works can also be seen in Padua, Treviso, Rovigo, Verona, Vicenza, Loreto, Brescia, Milan, and Bergamo, as well as Bavaria.
1637 Edmund Andros an English colonial administrator in North America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served as governor of the provinces of New York, East and West Jersey, Virginia, and Maryland. Before his service in North America, he served as bailiff of Guernsey. Andros' tenure in New England was authoritarian and turbulent, as his views were decidedly pro-Anglican, a negative quality in a region home to many Puritans. His actions in New England resulted in his overthrow during the 1689 Boston revolt
1640 Claude Fleury a French ecclesiastical historian.
1642 Johann Christoph Bach a German composer and organist of the Baroque period. He was born at Arnstadt, the son of Heinrich Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach's great uncle, hence he was Johann Sebastian's first cousin once removed. He was also the uncle of Maria Barbara Bach, J.S. Bach's first wife. He is not to be confused with Johann Sebastian Bach's son, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach
1677 Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski the son of John III Sobieski, King of Poland, and his wife, Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien.
1685 Marie Adélaïde of Savoy the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy. She was the eldest daughter of Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and of Anne Marie d'Orléans. Her betrothal to the Duke of Burgundy in June 1696 was part of the Treaty of Turin, signed on 29 August 1696. She was the mother of the future King Louis XV of France. Styled as Duchess of Burgundy after her marriage, she became Dauphine of France upon the death of her father-in-law, Le Grand Dauphin, in 1711. She died of measles in 1712, followed by her husband a week later
1721 Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes a French statesman, minister, and afterwards counsel for the defence of Louis XVI.
1721 James Elphinston a well noted 18th century Scottish educator, orthographer, phonologist and linguistics expert.
1727 Johann Gottfried Zinn a German anatomist and botanist member of the Berlin Academy.
1730 Sophie von La Roche a German novelist. She was born in Kaufbeuren and died in Offenbach am Main
1732 Warren Hastings the first Governor-General of Bengal from 1772 and the first Governor-General of India 1773 to 1785. He was accused of corruption and impeached in 1787, but after a long trial he was acquitted in 1795. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1814
1742 Nicolas Leblanc a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt.
1744 Christian August Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont a general in the Austrian service, and last commander and Field Marshal of the Portuguese land army.
1750 Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes a French painter.
1752 Robert de Lamanon a French botanist, physicist and meteorologist. He joined several scientific expeditions and eventually died on one
1752 Gabriel Duvall an American politician and jurist. Duvall was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1835 during the tenure of Chief Justice John Marshall. Previously, Duvall was the Comptroller of the Treasury, a Maryland state court judge, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland, and a Maryland state legislator
1761 Thaddäus Haenke a Bohemian geographer and explorer in South America.
1771 Nicolaus Thomas Host an Austrian botanist, and the personal physician of Holy Roman Emperor Francis His botanical works include Synopsis plantarum in Austria and the four-volume Austriacorum Icones et descriptions graminum; he was also the first director of the botanical garden at the Belvedere palace. The genus Hosta is named for him
1772 Henry Francis Cary Rev. Henry Francis Cary was a British author and translator, best known for his blank verse translation of The Divine Comedy of Dante
1778 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac a French chemist and physicist. He is known mostly for two laws related to gases, and for his work on alcohol-water mixtures, which led to the degrees Gay-Lussac used to measure alcoholic beverages in many countries
1781 Charlotte von Ahlefeld a German novelist.
1788 Carl Wilhelm von Heideck a military officer, a philhellene and a Bavarian painter.
1790 Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant a Marshal of France.
1792 William II of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg from 7 October 1840 until his death in 1849.
1792 Maria Beatrice of Savoy a Princess of Savoy and Duchess of Modena by marriage.
1794 Luigi Lablache an Italian opera singer of French and Irish heritage. He was most noted for his comic performances, possessing a powerful and agile bass voice, a wide range, and adroit acting skills: Leporello in Don Giovanni was one of his signature roles
1797 Naum Veqilharxhi an Albanian lawyer and scholar. In 1844, he created a unique alphabet for the Albanian language using characters he had created himself, the Vithkuqi script. Veqilharxhi is one of most prominent figures of the early Albanian National Awakening, and is considered by Albanians as its first ideologue
1798 Sofja Shcherbatova a prominent Russian philanthropist, the Dame Chevalier of the Order of Saint Catherine. Princess Shcherbatova was the founder of The Grand Dames Helping the Poor charity which she remained the chairman of till 1876, the Nikolskaya Community , many orphanages and shelters for homeless and elderly people. An heir to the famous Apraksin family, she was greatly interested in literature and arts, kept a fashionable Moscow salon and was a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Pyotr Vyazemsky and Mikhail Lermontov, among others
1800 Lorenzo Pareto an Italian geologist and statesman.
1802 Paul-Émile Botta a French scientist who served as Consul in Mosul from 1842.
1803 Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony Queen consort of Spain as the wife of King Ferdinand VII of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Prince Maximilian of Saxony and his first wife, Princess Carolina of Parma , daughter of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. She was a member of the house of Wettin
1805 Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin a French magician. He is widely considered the father of the modern style of conjuring
1805 Adolf Reubke a German organ builder.
1806 Gilbert Duprez a French tenor, singing teacher and minor composer who famously pioneered the delivery of the operatic high C from the chest. He also created the role of Edgardo in the popular bel canto-era opera Lucia di Lammermoor in 1835
1808 Levi Boone Day Boone served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the American Party.
1810 Victor-Auguste-Isidor Deschamps a Belgian Archbishop of Mechlin, Cardinal and Primate of Belgium.