Born on December 7

521 Columba an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in present-day Scotland. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and political institution in the region for centuries. He is the Patron Saint of Derry. He was highly regarded by both the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Picts, and is remembered today as a Christian saint and one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland
967 Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr a famous Persian Sufi and poet who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition.
1209 Vasilko Konstantinovich the first Prince of Rostov, Russia. He was the son of Konstantin of Rostov
1302 Azzone Visconti lord of Milan from 1329 until his death. He is considered the founder of the state of Milan, which later became a duchy
1545 Henry Stuart Lord Darnley king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567. Many contemporary narratives describing his life and death refer to him as Lord Darnley, his title as heir apparent to the Earldom of Lennox, and it is by this appellation that he is now generally known
1561 Kikkawa Hiroie a Japanese daimyo of the Azuchi-Momoyama period through early Edo period.
1598 Gian Lorenzo Bernini an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets
1637 Bernardo Pasquini an Italian composer of operas, oratorios, cantatas and keyboard music. A renowned virtuoso keyboard player in his day, he was one of the most important Italian composers for harpsichord between Girolamo Frescobaldi and Domenico Scarlatti, having also made substantial contributions to the opera and oratorio
1637 William Neile an English mathematician and founder member of the Royal Society. His major mathematical work, the rectification of the semicubical parabola, was carried out when he was aged nineteen, and was published by John Wallis. By carrying out the determination of arc lengths on a curve given algebraically, in other words by extending to algebraic curves generally with Cartesian geometry a basic concept from differential geometry, it represented a major advance in what would become infinitesimal calculus. His name also appears as Neil
1643 Giovanni Battista Falda an Italian architect, engraver and artist. He is known for his engravings of both contemporary and antique structures of Rome
1647 Giovanni Ceva an Italian mathematician widely known for proving Ceva's theorem in elementary geometry. His brother, Tommaso Ceva was also a well-known poet and mathematician
1675 Nicola Michetti an Italian architect, active in a late-Baroque style in mostly Rome, Italy and St Petersburg, Russia.
1697 Peter August Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. He was the fifth and youngest son of Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his wife Duchess Luise Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
1722 Anna Vorontsova a Russian lady in waiting, salonist and noble, cousin of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. She was married to Chancellor Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov
1731 John Baptist Albertrandi a Polish Jesuit, bishop and historian of Italian extraction, born in Warsaw.
1731 Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron the first professional French scholar of Indian culture. He conceived the institutional framework for the new profession. He inspired the founding of the École française d'Extrême-Orient a century after his death and, later still, the founding of the Institut francais de Pondichéry
1733 Antoine-Jean-Marie Thévenard a French politician and vice admiral. He served in the French ruling regimes of Louis XVI, those of the Revolution, Napoleon I and Louis XVIII, and is buried at the Panthéon de Paris. His son Antoine-René Thévenard, capitaine de vaisseau, was killed at the Battle of Aboukir whilst commanding the 74-gun Aquilon
1734 Joachim Christian Timm an apothecary, mayor of Malchin, and a botanist with a particular interest in cryptograms. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Timm when citing a botanical name
1743 Johann Joachim Eschenburg a German critic and literary historian.
1750 Cornelia Schlosser the sister and only sibling of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe who survived to adulthood.
1754 Jean-Antoine Marbot a French general and politician.
1764 Claude Victor-Perrin Duc de Belluno a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was made a Marshal of France in 1807 by Napoleon
1768 Jean Isidore Harispe a distinguished French soldier of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a of the following period. Harispe was created a Marshal of France in 1851
1783 Catherine Bagration a wife of the general Pyotr Bagration. She was known for her beauty, love affairs and outrageous behaviour
1784 Allan Cunningham (author) a Scottish poet and author.
1786 Marie Walewska a Polish noblewoman and a mistress of Emperor Napoleon. In her later years she married count Philippe Antoine d'Ornano, an influential Napoleonic officer
1791 Ferenc Novák (writer) a Hungarian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and writer.
1791 Bernard Pierre Magnan a Marshal of France.
1792 Abraham Jacob van der Aa a Dutch writer. He was born in Amsterdam in 1792. His father was a lawyer. From the ages of 6 to 12, he visited the dayschool in Amstelveen. After that, he was sent to the boarding school of J.E. van Iterson in Aarlanderveen but only stayed there for a year. After a short stay at the Latin school in Leiden, where his parents lived at that time, he was sent to the Seminarium in Lingen, Germany to study the "dead languages"
1793 Joseph Severn an English portrait and subject painter and a personal friend of the famous English poet John Keats. He exhibited portraits, Italian genre, literary and biblical subjects, and a selection of his paintings can today be found in some of the most important museums in London, including the National Portrait Gallery, the Victoria and Albert Museum and Tate Britain
1796 Michel Charles Durieu de Maisonneuve a French soldier and botanist who was a native of Saint-Eutrope-de-Born in the department of Lot-et-Garonne.
1801 Johann Nestroy a singer, actor and playwright in the popular Austrian tradition of the Biedermeier period and its immediate aftermath. Dubbed the "Austrian Shakespeare", in style he is more comparable to Molière
1807 Princess Feodora of Leiningen the only daughter of Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Feodora and her older brother Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen were maternal half-siblings to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. She is a matrilineal ancestor of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
1808 Hugh McCulloch an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary under three presidents. He was opposed to the National Banking Act of 1864, and attempted to bring the United States back to the gold standard throughout his career
1810 Theodor Schwann a German physiologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism
1810 Josef Hyrtl an Austrian anatomist.
1812 William James Linton an English-born American wood-engraver, landscape painter, political reformer and author of memoirs, novels, poetry and non-fiction.
1817 Edward Tuckerman an American botanist and professor who made significant contributions to the study of lichens and other alpine plants. He was a founding member of the Natural History Society of Boston and most of his career was spent at Amherst College. He did the majority of his collecting on the slopes of Mount Washington in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Tuckerman Ravine was named in his honor. The standard botanical author abbreviation Tuck. is applied to species he described
1822 Caleb Lyon Governor of Idaho Territory from 1864 to 1865 during the last half of the American Civil War.
1823 Karl Hoffmann (naturalist) a German physician and naturalist.
1823 Leopold Kronecker a German mathematician who worked on number theory and algebra. He criticized Cantor's work on set theory, and was quoted by Weber as having said, "Die ganzen Zahlen hat der liebe Gott gemacht, alles andere ist Menschenwerk". Kronecker was a student and lifelong friend of Ernst Kummer
1826 Edmund G. Ross a politician who represented the state of Kansas after the American Civil War and was later governor of the New Mexico Territory. His vote against convicting President Andrew Johnson of "high crimes and misdemeanors" allowed Johnson to stay in office by the margin of one vote. As the seventh of seven Republican U.S. Senators to break with his party, Ross proved to be the person whose decision would result in conviction or acquittal. When he chose the latter, the vote of 35–19 in favor of Johnson's conviction failed to reach the required two-thirds vote. Ross lost his bid for re-election two years later
1830 Luigi Cremona an Italian mathematician. His life was devoted to the study of geometry and reforming advanced mathematical teaching in Italy. His reputation mainly rests on his Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica delle curve piane. He notably enriched our knowledge of algebraic curves and algebraic surfaces
1830 Judah Leib Gordon among the most important Hebrew poets of the Jewish Enlightenment.
1838 Thomas Bent the 22nd Premier of Victoria. He was one of the most colourful and corrupt politicians in Victorian history
1839 Redvers Buller a British Army officer and an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He served as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in South Africa during the early months of the Second Boer War and subsequently commanded the army in Natal until his return to England in November 1900
1840 Hermann Goetz a German composer.
1842 Otto Ammon a German anthropologist. Ammon was an engineer from 1863 to 1868. In 1883 he led a geographical and geological exploration of Roman roads. In 1887 he conducted anthropological research and from 1887 onwards he was a member of the Ancient Karlsruher Association and the Natural Science Association. In 1904 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Freiburg
1845 Josef Franz Freyn an Austrian civil engineer and botanist.
1847 George Nicholson (horticulturalist) an English botanist and horticulturist, amongst 60 awarded the Victoria Medal of Honour by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1897 for their contributions to horticulture. He is noted for having edited "The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening", produced as an eight-part alphabetical series between 1884 and 1888 with a supplement, and published by Upcott Gill of London