Born on December 8

65 Horace the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintillian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."
1021 Wang Anshi a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted controversial, major socioeconomic reforms. These reforms constituted the core concepts and motives of the Reformists, while their nemesis, Chancellor Sima Guang, led the Conservative faction against them
1412 Astorre II Manfredi lord of Imola from 1439 and of Faenza from 1443.
1499 Sebald Heyden a German musicologist, cantor, theologian, hymn-writer and religious poet. He is perhaps best known for his De arte canendi which is considered to have had a major impact on scholarship and the teaching of singing to young boys. It has been speculated that Heyden was the world's first true musicologist
1538 Miklós Istvánffy a Hungarian politician, Humanist historian and poet, who served as Palatinal Governor of Hungary from 19 January 1582 to November 1608.
1574 Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616) daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine.
1606 Nicolò Sagredo the 105th Doge of Venice, reigning from February 6, 1675 until his death less than two years later. Little of note occurred during his reign as Venice was still recovering from the Cretan War , which had ended in the reign of his predecessor
1614 Gonzales Coques a Flemish Baroque painter.
1678 Horatio Walpole 1st Baron Walpole a son of Robert Walpole of Houghton, Norfolk, and a younger brother of the Prime Minister of Great Britain Sir Robert Walpole.
1685 Johann Maria Farina an Italian perfumier who created the first Eau de Cologne.
1699 Maria Josepha of Austria born an Archduchess of Austria, and from 1711 to 1713 was heiress presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. By her marriage to Augustus of Saxony she was the Electress of Saxony and Queen consort of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1708 Francis I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession. Francis and House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. After taking the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, the return of the ancestral duchy of Lorraine went nominally to his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine , until succession under derivate house alliances resulted in Lorraine's annexation to France in 1766
1720 Nanasaheb Peshwa the son of Bajirao from his marriage with Kashibai and one of the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. He contributed heavily to the development of the city of Pune, India. He was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahu himself. At time of his death in 1749, the issueless Shahu made him the Peshwas of Maratha Empire.His career saw some of the best and worst moments of the Maratha empire. Maratha power in India reached its peak under his reign. With able leadership by his family members and other Maratha Generals, the borders of Maratha Empire crossed Peshawar by 1760 However, he is also partly been held responsible for the defeat of the Marathas at the Battle of Panipat
1724 Claude Balbastre a French composer, organist, harpsichordist and fortepianist. He was one of the most famous musicians of his time
1728 Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann a Swiss philosophical writer, naturalist, and physician.
1730 Johann Hedwig a German botanist notable for his studies of mosses , in particular the observation of sexual reproduction in the cryptogams.
1730 Jan Ingenhousz a Dutch physiologist, biologist and chemist. He is best known for showing that light is essential to photosynthesis and thus having discovered photosynthesis. He also discovered that plants, like animals, have cellular respiration. In his lifetime he was best known for successfully inoculating the members of the Habsburg family in Vienna against smallpox in 1768 and subsequently being the private counsellor and personal physician to the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa
1731 František Xaver Dušek a Czech composer and one of the most important harpsichordists and pianists of his time.
1734 Raghunathrao Peshwa of the Maratha Empire from 1773 to 1774. He was instrumental in the downfall of the Peshwa clan
1741 Paul Dietrich Giseke a German botanist, physician, teacher and librarian.
1742 Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France.
1751 Heinrich Füger a German portrait and historical painter.
1756 Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria Archbishop and Elector Spiritual of Cologne , Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the last child of the Habsburg ruler of Austria Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Not only his father, the ex-Duke of Lorraine, but also two of his brothers and one of his nephews were Holy Roman Emperors: Joseph II, Leopold II and, until his abdication in 1806 , Francis II; and two of his sisters were Queen Consorts: Marie Antoinette of France and Maria Carolina of the Two Sicilies. He was the last fully functioning Elector of Cologne and was the employer and patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven
1761 Antoine-Louis Decrest de Saint-Germain a French soldier of the French Revolutionary Wars, who later rose to the top military rank of General of Division, taking part to the Napoleonic Wars as a commander of cavalry.
1765 Eli Whitney an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. Despite the social and economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army. He continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825
1765 Friedrich Schlichtegroll a teacher, scholar and the first biographer of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. His brief account of Mozart's life was published in a volume of twelve obituaries Schlichtegroll prepared and called Nekrolog auf das Jahr 1791. The book appeared in 1793, two years after Mozart's death
1767 Antoine Fabre d'Olivet a French author, poet and composer whose Biblical and philosophical hermeneutics influenced many occultists, such as Eliphas Lévi, Gerard Encausse and Édouard Schuré.
1790 August Meineke born at Soest in the Duchy of Westphalia. He was father-in-law to philologist Theodor Bergk
1795 Peter Andreas Hansen a German astronomer.
1797 Martin Martens a Belgian botanist and chemist born in Maastricht, Netherlands.
1798 Joseph Romain-Desfossés a French naval officer and politician.
1798 Antoine Laurent Dantan a French academic sculptor, known as 'Dantan the Elder' to distinguish him from his slightly younger brother, Jean-Pierre Dantan , who was also a sculptor. He won the Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1828
1801 Albert Jäger an Austrian priest and historian who specialized in Tyrolean history.
1802 Alexander Odoevsky a Russian poet and playwright, and one of the leading figures of the 1825 Decembrist revolt. One of Odoevsky's lines, "One spark will start a flame" has come down in history as a long-lasting slogan of the Russian revolutionary movement. It was chosen as a motto for the Lenin-founded newspaper Iskra, also giving the magazine its title, which means "spark"
1807 Friedrich Traugott Kützing a German pharmacist, botanist and phycologist.
1811 Louis Schindelmeisser a nineteenth-century German clarinetist, conductor and composer. He was born Königsberg, Prussia, and studied in Berlin and Leipzig. He was an early and enthusiastic partisan of Richard Wagner, arranging his first performances in Wiesbaden and Darmstadt of Tannhäuser, of which he conducted the premiere, Rienzi and Lohengrin
1813 August Belmont the namesake of the "Belmont Stakes", third "jewel" of the "Triple Crown series of American thoroughbred horse racing.
1813 Jacob Georg Agardh a Swedish botanist, phycologist, and taxonomist.
1813 Adolph Kolping a German Catholic priest, who has been beatified by the Catholic Church. He was a leader in providing social support for young workers in the cities of industrial Germany, and worldwide
1815 Adolph Menzel a German artist noted for drawings, etchings, and paintings. Along with Caspar David Friedrich, he is considered one of the two most prominent German artists of the 19th century, and was the most successful artist of his era in Germany
1817 Christian Emil Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs a Danish nobleman and politician. He was Council President of Denmark from 1865 to 1870 as the leader of the Cabinet of Frijs
1818 Charles III Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 20 June 1856 to his death. He was the founder of the famous casino in Monte Carlo, as his title in Monegasque and Italian was Carlo III
1818 Charlemagne de Maupas a French lawyer and politician who was head of the Parisian Police during the critical period when Napoleon III seized power in the coup of 2 December 1851.
1820 Rochus von Liliencron a Germanist and historian, known for his collection of German Volkslieder , published in five volumes in 1865-1869, and as the editor of the biographical reference work Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, published 1875-1912.
1822 Jakov Ignjatović a Serbian 19th century novelist and prose writer from Hungary. He also wrote in Hungarian
1826 Silvestro Lega an Italian realist painter. He was one of the leading artists of the Macchiaioli and was also involved with the Mazzini movement
1828 Pierre Émile Levasseur a French economist, historian, Professor of geography, history and statistics in the Collège de France, at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and at the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, known as the founders and promoters of the study of commercial geography.
1831 Fyodor Bredikhin a Russian astronomer. His surname is sometimes given as Bredichin in the literature, and non-Russian sources sometimes render his first name as Theodor
1832 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson a Norwegian writer who received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit". Bjørnson is considered to be one of The Four Greats among Norwegian writers, the others being Henrik Ibsen, Jonas Lie, and Alexander Kielland. Bjørnson is also celebrated for his lyrics to the Norwegian National Anthem, "Ja, vi elsker dette landet"
1833 Auguste Mercier a French general and Minister of War at the time of the Dreyfus Affair.