Died on December 9

748 Nasr ibn Sayyar an Arab general and the last Umayyad governor of Khurasan in 738–748. Nasr played a distinguished role in the wars against the Turgesh, although he failed to decisively confront the rebellion of al-Harith ibn Surayj in its early stages. Although respected as a soldier and a statesman, he owed his appointment as governor more to his obscure tribal background, which rendered him dependent on the Caliph. His tenure was nevertheless successful, as Nasr introduced long-overdue tax reforms that alleviated social tension and largely restored stabilized Umayyad control in Transoxiana, which had been greatly reduced under the Turgesh onslaught. His last years were occupied by inter-tribal rivalries and uprisings, however, as the Caliphate itself descended into a period of civil war. In 746 Nasr was driven from his capital by Ibn Surayj and Juday' al-Kirmani, but returned after the latter fell out among themselves, resulting in Ibn Surayj's death. Preoccupied with this conflict, Nasr was unable to stop the outbreak and spread of the Abbasid Revolution, whose leader, Abu Muslim, exploited the situation to his advantage. Evicted from his province in early 748, he fled to Iran pursued by the Abbasid forces, where he died in December 748
1117 Gertrude of Brunswick a member of the Brunonen dynasty and the Margravine of Meissen.
1165 Malcolm IV of Scotland the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria and Ada de Warenne. The original Malcolm Canmore, a name now associated with his great-grandfather Malcolm III , he succeeded his grandfather David I, and shared David's Anglo-Norman tastes
1235 Robert Fitzwalter the leader of the baronial opposition against King John, and one of the twenty-five sureties of Magna Carta. He was feudal baron of Little Dunmow, Essex and constable of Baynard's Castle, in London, to which was annexed the hereditary office of castellain and chief banneret of the City of London. Part of the official aristocracy created by Henry I and Henry II, he served John in the wars in Normandy, in which he was taken prisoner by King Philip II of France and forced to pay a heavy ransom
1437 Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411. He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages and was – unlike his father Charles – an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament
1544 Teofilo Folengo one of the principal Italian macaronic poets.
1565 Pope Pius IV Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565. He is known for presiding over the final session of the Council of Trent
1603 William Watson (priest) an English Roman Catholic priest and conspirator, executed for treason.
1625 Ubbo Emmius a German historian and geographer.
1636 Fabian Birkowski a Polish writer and preacher.
1641 Anthony van Dyck a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draftsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching
1669 Pope Clement IX Pope from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669.
1674 Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon an English statesman, historian, and maternal grandfather of two English, Scottish and Irish monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.
1678 Jürgen Ovens a portrait painter from North Frisia and, according to Arnold Houbraken, a pupil of Rembrandt. He is best known for his painting in the city hall of Amsterdam and paintings for the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp for whom he worked for more than 30 years, also as an art dealer
1683 John Oldham (poet) an English satirical poet and translator.
1706 Peter II of Portugal Regent and King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Pacific"
1718 Vincenzo Coronelli a Franciscan monk, cosmographer, cartographer, publisher, and encyclopedist known in particular for his atlases and globes. He spent most of his life in Venice
1734 Gaetano Berenstadt best remembered for his association with the composer George Frideric Handel. Berenstadt created roles in three of Handel's operas. Berenstadt's parents were German and his father was timpanist to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. By the end of his 27-year-long career Berenstadt had sung in 55 dramatic works, 33 of which were newly composed
1746 Carl Gyllenborg a Swedish statesman and author.
1770 Gottlieb Muffat appointed to the position of third court organist at the Hofkapelle in 1717. He acquired additional duties over time including the instruction of members of the Imperial family, among them the future Empress Maria Theresa. He was promoted to second organist in 1729 and first organist upon the accession of Maria Theresa to the throne in 1741. He retired from official duties at the court in 1763
1775 Pietro Gnocchi an Italian composer, choir director, historian, and geographer of the late Baroque era, active mainly in Brescia, where he was choir director of Brescia Cathedral. In addition to composing an abundance of eccentrically-titled sacred music, all of which remains in manuscript, he wrote a 25-volume history of ancient Greek colonies
1793 Yolande de Polastron the favourite of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at the Palace of Versailles in 1775, the year after Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France. She was considered one of the great beauties of pre-Revolutionary high society, but her extravagance and exclusivity earned her many enemies
1798 Johann Reinhold Forster a Reformed pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America. He is best known as the naturalist on James Cook's second Pacific voyage, where he was accompanied by his son Georg Forster. These expeditions promoted the career of Johann Reinhold Forster and the findings became the bedrock of colonial professionalism and helped set the stage for the future development of anthropology and ethnology. They also laid the framework for general concern about the impact that alteration of the physical environment for European economic expansion would have on exotic societies
1806 Francis Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He is a patrilineal ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, King Philippe of Belgium and Simeon Sakskoburggotski, former tsar and prime minister of Bulgaria
1808 Marianne Kirchgessner a German glass harmonica player left blind by eye disease as a result of smallpox when she was only four years old. Kirchgessner's artistic qualities brought her the attention of great composers such as Muzio Clementi, Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Johann Friedrich Fasch, Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Franz Anton Hoffmeister
1814 Joseph Bramah an inventor and locksmith. He is best known for having invented the hydraulic press. Along with William George Armstrong, he can be considered one of the two fathers of hydraulic engineering
1824 Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson a French painter and pupil of Jacques-Louis David, who was part of the beginning of the Romantic movement by adding elements of eroticism through his paintings. Girodet is remembered for his precise and clear style and for his paintings of members of the Napoleonic family
1830 Heinrich Christian Friedrich Schumacher a Danish surgeon, botanist and professor of anatomy at the University of Copenhagen. Schumacher carried out significant research work in malacology, in other words on molluscs, and assigned systematic names to many taxa
1833 Dominique Joseph Garat a French writer and politician.
1845 Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn a famous cavalry general in the Austrian and Russian armies during the Napoleonic Wars.
1851 Ramón Freire a Chilean political figure. He was head of state on several occasions, and enjoyed a numerous following until the War of the Confederation. Ramón Freire was one of the principal leaders of the liberal Piopiolo movement and has been praised by historian Gabriel Salazar as the most democratic leader of the early republican period in Chile
1854 Almeida Garrett a Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician. He is considered to be the introducer of the Romanticism in Portugal. He is regarded as one of history's greatest romantics and a true revolutionary and humanist
1858 Robert Baldwin a Canadian lawyer and politician who, with his political partner Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, led the first responsible ministry in Canada. "Responsible Government" marked the country's democratic independence, without a revolution, although not without violence. This achievement also included the introduction of municipal government, the introduction of a modern legal system and the Canadian Jury system, and the abolishing of imprisonment for debt. Baldwin is also noted for resisting a decades-long tradition of Orange Order terrorism of political reform in the colony, that went so far as to burn the Parliament buildings in Montreal in 1849
1867 Johann Nicolaus von Dreyse a German firearms inventor and manufacturer. He is most famous for submitting the Dreyse needle gun in 1836 to the Prussian army, which was adopted for service in December 1840 as the Leichte Perscussions-Gewehr M 1841 – a name deliberately chosen to mislead about the rifle's mechanism – later renamed Zündnadelgewehr M 1841 in 1855
1870 Max Emanuel Ainmiller a German artist and glass painter.
1871 Josef Mánes a Czech painter.
1873 William Steeves a merchant, lumberman, politician and Father of Canadian Confederation.
1874 Ezra Cornell an American businessman and education administrator. He was the founder of Western Union and a co-founder of Cornell University. He also served as President of the New York Agriculture Society and as a state Senator
1875 Adolf Schrödter a German painter and illustrator. He acquired a reputation as a genre painter and member of the Düsseldorf school of painting, and illustrated such works as Till Eulenspiegel
1875 John Ross Browne an Irish-born American traveler, artist, writer and government agent.
1876 George Trenholm a prominent politician in the Confederate States of America and served as the Secretary of the Treasury during the final year of the American Civil War.
1879 Carl Johann Steinhauser a noted German sculptor in the classical style.
1881 Carl Culmann a German structural engineer.
1882 Princess Luise of Anhalt-Bernburg a German Princess.
1891 Leon Pinsker a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion, also known as Hibbat Zion movement.
1906 Ferdinand Brunetière a French writer and critic.
1906 Aleksei Ignatiev a Russian political figure. His brother Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev was Chairman of the Committee of Ministers between 1872 and 1880
1907 Eva Nansen a celebrated Norwegian mezzosoprano singer. She was also a pioneer of women's skiing
1908 William Harvey Carney an African American soldier during the American Civil War. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner
1909 Hermann von Kaulbach a German painter of the Munich School.