Born in December

December 24, 3 Galba Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors
December 4, 34 Persius a Roman poet and satirist of Etruscan origin. In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic wisdom and a strong criticism for the abuses of his contemporaries. His works, which became very popular in the Middle Ages, were published after his death by his friend and mentor the stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus
December 15, 37 Nero Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death
December 30, 39 Titus Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father
December 31, 45 Quintus Fabius Maximus a general and politician of the late Roman Republic who became suffect consul in 45 BC.
December 8, 65 Horace the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintillian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."
December 15, 130 Lucius Verus Roman Emperor from 161 to 169. He ruled with Marcus Aurelius as co-emperor from 161 until his own death in 169
December 22, 244 Diocletian a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in the Roman province of Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian as augustus, co-emperor, in 286
December 25, 317 Philip III of Macedon a Greek king of Macedon from after June 11, 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedonia by Philinna of Larissa and a half-brother of Alexander the Great. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended to the throne
December 24, 427 Archbishop Sisinnius I of Constantinople the Archbishop of Constantinople from 426 to 427.
December 23, 484 Huneric King of the Vandals and the oldest son of Genseric. He dropped the imperial politics of his father and concentrated mainly on internal affairs. He was married to Eudocia, daughter of western Roman Emperor Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia. She left him, probably in 472. She had one son by him, Hilderic
December 7, 521 Columba an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in present-day Scotland. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and political institution in the region for centuries. He is the Patron Saint of Derry. He was highly regarded by both the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Picts, and is remembered today as a Christian saint and one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland
December 21, 583 Yohl Ik'nal a female ruler of the Mayan city of Palenque, ruling from 583 to 604, during the Mesoamerican Classic Period. Her name means "Heart of the Wind Place"
December 9, 638 Sergius I of Constantinople the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 610 to 638. He is most famous for promoting Monothelite Christianity, especially through the Ecthesis
December 31, 695 Muhammad bin Qasim an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Taif. Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Islamic expansion into India
December 14, 704 Aldfrith of Northumbria king of Northumbria from 685 until his death. He is described by early writers such as Bede, Alcuin and Stephen of Ripon as a man of great learning. Some of his works and some letters written to him survive. His reign was relatively peaceful, marred only by disputes with Bishop Wilfrid, a major figure in the early Northumbrian church
December 11, 722 Fergal mac Máele Dúin High King of Ireland. Fergal belonged to the Cenél nEógain sept of the northern Uí Néill. He was the son of Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich , a King of Ailech, and great grandson of the high king Áed Uaridnach. He belonged to the Cenél maic Ercae branch of the Cenél nEógain and was King of Ailech from 700 to 722
December 6, 846 Hasan al-Askari the eleventh and the penultimate Imam of the Twelver Shia Muslims. His title al-Askari is derived from the Arabic word Asker for army. He was given this title because he lived in Samarra, a garrison town. He was 22, when his father was killed. The period of his Imāmate was six years and he died at the age of 28 and was buried in Samarra
December 5, 852 Zhu Wen a Jiedushi at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rebel Huang Chao's state of Qi and overthrew Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
December 30, 904 Harun ibn Khumarawayh the fourth Tulunid ruler of Egypt. He succeed his elder brother Abu 'l-Asakir Jaysh, who had been murdered by army chiefs. He left state affairs to the vizier Abu Ja'far ibn Ali, preferring to live a life of dissolute luxury. This led to a growing crisis in the country, since state finances could not be regulated and the army leaders gradually accrued more power to themselves
December 12, 926 William II Duke of Aquitaine the Count of Auvergne and Duke of Aquitaine from 918 to his death, succeeding his uncle William I.
December 1, 928 Diogo Fernandes (count) known that his father was named Fernando, and that he was possibly from Castile. He is the ancestor of many of the important 10th and 11th-century noble families in the County of Portugal and in the Kingdom of León. Although the relationship has not been documented, some authors believe that Diego could have been the brother of Count Ero and of Godesteu Fernández who married his niece, Gugina Ériz, daughter of his supposed brother, Ero
December 3, 937 Siegfried Count of Merseburg the Count and Margrave of Merseburg from an unknown date before 934 until his death. He does not appear with the title of margrave in contemporary royal charters and diplomas, so the title was informal and never official
December 25, 940 Makan ibn Kaki a Daylamite military leader active in northern Iran in the early 10th century. He became involved in the succession disputes of the Alids of Tabaristan, and managed to establish himself as the ruler of Tabaristan and Gurgan for short periods of time, in competition to other Daylamite warlords such as Asfar ibn Shiruya or the Ziyarid brothers Mardavij and Vushmgir. He alternately opposed and secured support from the Samanid governors of Khurasan, and eventually fell in battle against a Samanid army
December 10, 949 Herman I Duke of Swabia the first Conradine Duke of Swabia , the son of Gebhard, Duke of Lorraine, and a cousin of King Conrad I of Germany.
December 14, 950 Al-Farabi a renowned scientist and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician, representing the multidisciplinary approach of muslim scientists
December 7, 967 Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr a famous Persian Sufi and poet who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition.
December 25, 1003 Pope John XVIII Pope and ruler of the Papal states from January 1004 to his abdication in June 1009. He was born Fasanius at Rapagnano, near Ascoli Piceno, the son of a Roman priest named Leo
December 14, 1009 Emperor Go-Suzaku the 69th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
December 8, 1021 Wang Anshi a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted controversial, major socioeconomic reforms. These reforms constituted the core concepts and motives of the Reformists, while their nemesis, Chancellor Sima Guang, led the Conservative faction against them
December 1, 1081 Louis VI of France King of the Franks from 1108 until his death. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis"
December 1, 1083 Anna Komnene a Greek princess, scholar, physician, hospital administrator, and the daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos of Byzantium and Irene Doukaina. She wrote the Alexiad, an account of her father’s reign, which is unique in that it was written by a princess about her father
December 22, 1091 Jutta von Sponheim currently the Rhineland-Palatinate. She was the daughter of Count Stephen of Spanheim
December 22, 1095 Roger II of Sicily King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, became Duke of Apulia and Calabria in 1127, and then King of Sicily in 1130. By the time of his death at the age of 58, Roger had succeeded in uniting all the Norman conquests in Italy into one kingdom with a strong centralized government
December 15, 1128 Fulco I Margrave of Milan the ancestor of the Italian line of the House of Este.
December 31, 1135 Henry of Groitzsch the second son of Wiprecht of Groitzsch and Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia. He succeeded his father as burggrave of Magdeburg in 1124
December 24, 1143 Miles of Gloucester 1st Earl of Hereford High Sheriff of Gloucester and Constable of England.
December 28, 1164 Emperor Rokujō the 79th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1165 through 1168
December 24, 1166 John King of England King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom
December 23, 1173 Louis I Duke of Bavaria the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon. Louis was married to Ludmilla, a daughter of Duke Frederick of Bohemia
December 22, 1177 Emperor Antoku the 81st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1180 through 1185. During this time, the imperial family was involved in a bitter struggle between warring clans. Yoritomo, with his cousin Yoshinaka, led a force from the Minamoto clan against the Taira, who controlled the emperor. During the sea battle of Dan-no-ura in March 1185, a member of the royal household took Antoku and plunged with him into the water in the Shimonoseki Straits, drowning the child emperor rather than allowing him to be captured by the opposing forces. The conflict between the clans led to numerous legends and tales. Antoku's tomb is said to be located in a number of places around western Japan, including the island of Iwo Jima, a result of the spreading of legends about the emperor and the battle
December 22, 1189 Chagatai Khan the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1226-1242 C.E. The Chagatai language and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father. He was also appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the execution of the Yassa, the written code of law created by Genghis Khan, though that lasted only until Genghis Khan was crowned Khan of the Mongol Empire. The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire. Chagatai Khan was considered hot-headed and somewhat temperamental by his relatives, because of his attitude of non-acceptance of Jochi as Great Khan. He was the most vocal about this issue among his relations. Chaghatai himself appears to have been a just and energetic governor, though perhaps rough and uncouth, and addicted to hard drinking. At any rate, he was animated by the soldier-like spirit of his father, and succeeded in keeping order among as heterogeneous a population, as a kingdom was ever composed of
December 14, 1194 Berengaria of Portugal a Portuguese infanta, later Queen consort of Denmark. She was the fifth daughter of Portuguese King Sancho I and Dulce of Aragon. She married Danish King Valdemar II and was the mother of Danish kings Eric IV, Abel and Christopher I
December 26, 1194 Frederick II Holy Roman Emperor one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous; however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Professor Donald Detwiler, who wrote:
December 30, 1204 Abû 'Uthmân Sa'îd ibn Hakam al Qurashi the first Ra’îs of Manûrqa.
December 7, 1209 Vasilko Konstantinovich the first Prince of Rostov, Russia. He was the son of Konstantin of Rostov
December 17, 1239 Kujō Yoritsugu the fifth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. His father was the 4th Kamakura shogun, Kujō Yoritsune
December 15, 1242 Prince Munetaka the sixth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan who reigned from 1252 to 1266.
December 25, 1250 John IV Laskaris emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258 to December 25, 1261. This empire was one of the Greek states formed from the remaining fragments of the Byzantine Empire, after the capture of Constantinople by Roman Catholics during the Fourth Crusade in 1204
December 30, 1256 Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi al-Azdi, also known as Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi. [29 December 1256 – 1321, was a Moroccan mathematician, astronomer, Islamic scholar, Sufi, and a one-time astrologer