Died on February 11

244 Gordian III Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian Very little is known on his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD
641 Heraclius Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641.
731 Pope Gregory II Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts, schisms and civil wars that eventually led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes
824 Pope Paschal I Pope from 25 January 817 to his death in 824. His mother was the renowned religious, the Lady Theodora
1056 Herman II (archbishop of Cologne) the Archbishop of Cologne from 1036 until his death.
1141 Hugh of Saint Victor C.R.S.A. was a Saxon canon regular and a leading theologian and writer on mystical theology
1160 Minamoto no Yoshitomo the head of the Minamoto clan and a general of the late Heian period of Japanese history. His son Minamoto no Yoritomo became shogun and founded the Kamakura Shogunate, the first shogunate in the history of Japan
1324 Karl von Trier the 16th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1311-24.
1418 Bogislaw VIII Duke of Pomerania Duke of Pomerania in Pomerania-Stolp from 1395 until 1418.
1503 Elizabeth of York queen consort of England from 1486 until her death. She was the daughter of Edward IV, niece of Richard III and married Henry VII following Henry's victory at The Battle of Bosworth. She was the mother of Henry VIII and grandmother to his children Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth Through her youngest surviving daughter Mary, she was great-grandmother to Lady Jane Grey, and through her eldest daughter, Margaret, she was grandmother, great-grandmother and great-great-grandmother to Scottish monarchs James V, Mary and James VI
1524 Isabella of Aragon Duchess of Milan the daughter of King Alfonso II of Naples and Ippolita Maria Sforza. From 1489 to 1494, she was the Duchess consort of Milan, and from 1499 to 1524 the suo jure Duchess of Bari and Princess of Rossano. After her brother Ferdinand II's death, she was the heir of the Brienne claim to the title King of Jerusalem
1560 Beltrán de la Cueva 3rd Duke of Alburquerque a Spanish nobleman and military leader.
1586 Augustus Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.
1605 Stradanus a Flanders-born mannerist artist active mainly in 16th century Florence.
1626 Pietro Cataldi an Italian mathematician. A citizen of Bologna, he taught mathematics and astronomy and also worked on military problems. His work included the development of continued fractions and a method for their representation. He was one of many mathematicians who attempted to prove Euclid's fifth postulate. Cataldi discovered the sixth and seventh primes later to acquire the designation Mersenne primes by 1588. His discovery of the 6th, that corresponding to p=17 in the formula Mp=2p-1, exploded a many-times repeated number-theoretical myth that the perfect numbers had units digits that invariably alternated between 6 and 8; and that of the 7th held the record for the largest known prime for almost two centuries, until Leonhard Euler discovered that 231 - 1 was the eighth Mersenne prime. Although Cataldi also claimed that p=23, 29, 31 and 37 all also generate Mersenne primes , his text's clear demonstration shows that he had genuinely established the fact through p=19
1649 Marie of Prussia Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a Prussian duchess by birth and Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage.
1650 René Descartes a French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the father of modern philosophy, and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution and has been described as an example of genius. He refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, and refused to trust his own senses. Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to final ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation
1680 Elisabeth of the Palatinate known for her intelligent and caring nature. She was the eldest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who was briefly King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. She was born in Heidelberg, Germany, spending the first nine years of her life there. When she was nine, she went to live in Leyden, Holland with her brother and was raised in a nursery palace to complete her studies. After finishing her studies, she was deemed ready to live in The Hague with her mother. Elisabeth was sent back to live in Germany and then eventually took her vows in a Protestant convent at Herford Abbey in Westphalia as Princess-Abbess. She influenced many key figures and philosophers, most notably René Descartes. During her days as head of the Abbey, she provided refuge for many Protestants during a time of great persecution. She is most famous for questioning Descartes' idea of Dualism, or the mind being separate from the body, in addition to questioning his theories regarding communication between the mind and body. The written correspondence of Descartes and Elisabeth is now revered as important philosophical documents, giving insight into the theoretical debates of the 17th century. Elisabeth died in 1680 after suffering from a painful illness for several years
1693 John de Brito a Portuguese Jesuit missionary and martyr, often called "the Portuguese Francis Xavier" by Indian Catholics.
1695 Abraham Hinckelmann an Islamologist who was the first to print a complete Qur'an in Hamburg.
1697 Georg Händel a barber-surgeon and the father of Georg Frideric Handel. As a young man he had to stop attending grammar school when his father Valentin died and had to give up his aspirations to become a lawyer. It is very unlikely he ever succeeded in finishing a medical study and without a degree he was not allowed to call himself a physician
1740 Tahmasp II one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia.
1744 Hedvig Taube a Swedish noble and salonist, official royal mistress to King Frederick I of Sweden. She is generally considered to have been the only official royal mistress in Swedish history, and she did have some political significance
1746 Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov a Russian commander and politician, promoted Field Marshal in 1728. His life and fortune had swing like a weathercock during his life, following complex plots and the troubled time that followed Peter the Great's death
1749 Philip Livingston (1686–1749) the son of Robert Livingston the Elder, and elder brother of Robert Livingston of Clermont. Philip was the second Lord of Livingston Manor, a merchant, and slave trader
1755 Francesco Scipione marchese di Maffei an Italian writer and art critic, author of many articles and plays. An antiquarian with a humanist education whose publications on Etruscan antiquities stand as incunabula of Etruscology, he engaged in running skirmishes in print with his rival in the field of antiquities, Antonio Francesco Gori
1762 Johann Tobias Krebs a German organist and composer.
1763 William Shenstone an English poet and one of the earliest practitioners of landscape gardening through the development of his estate, The Leasowes.
1786 Hugh Percy 1st Duke of Northumberland an English peer, landowner, and art patron.
1795 Carl Michael Bellman a Swedish poet, songwriter, composer and performer. Bellman is a central figure in the Swedish song tradition and remains a powerful influence in Swedish music, as well as in Scandinavian literature, to this day
1797 Antoine Dauvergne a French composer and violinist.
1803 Jean-François de La Harpe a French playwright, writer and critic.
1816 Christiane Henriette Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken a Countess of Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld by birth and by marriage a Princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont.
1820 Karl von Fischer a German architect. His drafts had enormous influence on the architecture of neo-classicism in South Germany
1823 William Playfair a Scottish engineer and political economist, the founder of graphical methods of statistics.
1825 Frederick IV Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg the last duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
1828 DeWitt Clinton an early American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator and was the sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity, he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton was the leader of New York's People’s Party and was a major rival of Martin Van Buren, who was the Attorney General of New York during Clinton's governorship. Clinton believed that infrastructure improvements could transform American life, drive economic growth, and encourage political participation, and he heavily influenced the development of the New York State and the United States
1829 Alexander Griboyedov a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer. He is recognized as homo unius libri, a writer of one book, whose fame rests on the verse comedy Woe from Wit or The Woes of Wit. He was Russia's ambassador to Qajar Persia, where he and all the embassy staff were massacred by an angry mob
1830 Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder an Austrian-Italian historical and portrait painter. He settled in the Russian Empire after the third and final partition of Poland, enticed by an extremely generous offer from the Tsar
1840 Ivan Kozlov a Russian Romantic poet and translator. As S. Mirsky noted, "his poetry appealed to the easily awakened emotions of the sentimental reader rather than to the higher poetic receptivity"
1848 Thomas Cole an American artist. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century. Cole's Hudson River School, as well as his own work, was known for its realistic and detailed portrayal of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism
1848 William Howley a clergyman in the Church of England. He served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1828 to 1848
1850 Charles-Marie de Féletz a French churchman, journalist and literary critic.
1855 Sahle Dengel nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia intermittently between 1832 and 11 February 1855, towards the end of the Zemene Mesafint. He was the son of Gebre Mesay, allegedly a descendant of a younger son of Emperor Fasilides
1862 Elizabeth Siddal an English artists' model, poet and artist. She was painted and drawn extensively by artists of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, including Walter Deverell, William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and her husband, Dante Gabriel Rossetti. She featured prominently in Rossetti's early paintings of women
1866 William Thomas Brande an English chemist.
1866 Thuwaini bin Said Sultan of Muscat and Oman the third son of Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman. Thuwaini was born in Oman, and never visited Zanzibar. When his father was away on Zanzibar, Thuwaini was his representative in Oman
1868 Léon Foucault a French physicist best known for his demonstration of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of light, discovered eddy currents, and is credited with naming the gyroscope
1870 Carlos Soublette President of Venezuela 1837-1839 and 1843–1847, and a hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
1871 Filippo Taglioni an Italian dancer and choreographer and personal teacher to his own daughter, the famous Romantic ballerina Marie Taglioni. He is the son of Carlo and father of both Marie and Paul. And, although August Bournonville's version is better known, it was Taglioni who was the original choreographer of La Sylphide, in 1832