February 12 in history

February 12 events chronologically

881 Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Holy Roman Emperor
1429 English forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orléans from attack by the Comte de Clermont and Sir John Stewart of Darnley in the Battle of Rouvray (also known as the Battle of the Herrings)
1502 Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India
1541 Santiago, Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia
1554 A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason
1593 Japanese invasion of Korea: Approximately 3,000 Joseon defenders led by general Kwon Yul successfully repel more than 30,000 Japanese forces in the Siege of Haengju
1689 The Convention Parliament declares that the flight to France in 1688 by James II, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, constitutes an abdication

Top 7 most famous people born on February 12

1768 Francis II Holy Roman Emperor the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I , the first Emperor of Austria , ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815
1809 Abraham Lincoln the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy
1809 Charles Darwin an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding
1934 Bill Russell a retired professional basketball player from the United States. Russell played center for the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association from 1956 to 1969. A five-time NBA Most Valuable Player and a twelve-time All-Star, Russell was the centerpiece of the Celtics dynasty, winning eleven NBA championships during his thirteen-year career. Along with Henri Richard of the National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens, Russell holds the record for the most championships won by an athlete in a North American sports league. Before his professional career, Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships. He also won a gold medal at the 1956 Summer Olympics as captain of the U.S. national basketball team
1948 Ray Kurzweil an American author, computer scientist, inventor, futurist, and is a director of engineering at Google. Aside from futurology, he is involved in fields such as optical character recognition , text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. He has written books on health, artificial intelligence , transhumanism, the technological singularity, and futurism. Kurzweil is a public advocate for the futurist and transhumanist movements, as has been displayed in his vast collection of public talks, wherein he has shared his primarily optimistic outlooks on life extension technologies and the future of nanotechnology, robotics, and biotechnology
1969 Darren Aronofsky an American film director, screenwriter and film producer. He has received acclaim for his often surreal, disturbing films and has been noted for frequent collaborations with cinematographer Matthew Libatique, film editor Andrew Weisblum and composer Clint Mansell. His films have generated controversy and are well known for their often violent, bleak subject matter
1980 Christina Ricci an American actress. Ricci began her acting career appearing in commercials and received early recognition as a child star. Her debut performance in Mermaids was followed by a breakthrough role as Wednesday Addams in The Addams Family and its sequel Addams Family Values when she was 11 and 13 years old, respectively. Following her success with the Addams Family films, she earned somewhat of a "teen icon" status thanks to appearances in various big budget productions, notably Now and Then and Casper , marketed for younger audiences before making a transition into adult-oriented roles with the art house drama The Ice Storm. Ricci continued acting in small-scale independent films such as Buffalo '66 and The Opposite of Sex for which she received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress. She made a departure from independent cinema with Tim Burton's Sleepy Hollow and later received praise for her performance in the drama Monster , which marked a return to the darker material she had generated attention for earlier in her career

Top 7 most famous people died on February 12

1554 Lady Jane Grey an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
1798 Stanisław August Poniatowski the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and a supporter of progressive reforms, he is also remembered as the last king of the Commonwealth whose election was marred by serious irregularities, and the one who failed to prevent Poland's destruction
1804 Immanuel Kant widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics
1915 Fanny Crosby an American mission worker, poet, lyricist, and composer. A member of the Sixth Avenue Bible Baptist Church in Brooklyn, NY, she wrote many hymns together with her pastor, Robert Lowry. She was one of the most prolific hymnists in history, writing over 8,000 hymns and gospel songs, with over 100 million copies printed. This is despite her being blind from shortly after birth. Crosby is also known for her teaching, and her rescue mission work. By the end of the 19th century, she was "a household name"
1964 Gerald Gardner (Wiccan) an English Wiccan, as well as an author and an amateur anthropologist and archaeologist. He was instrumental in bringing the Contemporary Pagan religion of Wicca to public attention, writing some of its definitive religious texts and founding the tradition of Gardnerian Wicca
1979 Jean Renoir a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films Grand Illusion and The Rules of the Game are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made. As an author, he wrote the definitive biography of his father, the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Renoir, My Father. Jean Renoir was ranked by the BFI's Sight & Sound poll of critics as the fourth greatest director of all time
1984 Julio Cortázar an Argentine novelist, short story writer, and essayist. Known as one of the founders of the Latin American Boom, Cortázar influenced an entire generation of Spanish-speaking readers and writers in the Americas and Europe. He has been called both a "modern master of the short story" and, by Carlos Fuentes, "the Simón Bolívar of the novel."