Died on February 12

821 Benedict of Aniane a Benedictine monk and monastic reformer, who left a large imprint on the religious practice of the Carolingian Empire. His feast day is February 12
941 Wulfhelm Bishop of Wells before being promoted to the Archbishopric of Canterbury about 926. Nothing is known about his time at Wells, but as archbishop he helped codify royal law codes and gave lands to monasteries. He went to Rome soon after his selection as archbishop. Two religious books that he gave to his cathedral are still extant
1101 Emperor Daozong of Liao now northeastern China. Succeeding his father, Xingzong, in 1055, Daozong ruled until he was murdered in 1101. He was succeeded by his grandson, Tianzuodi. He reigned from August 28, 1055 to February 12, 1101
1242 Henry (VII) of Germany King of Sicily from 1212, Duke of Swabia from 1216, and King of Germany from 1220. He was the son and co-king of Emperor Frederick II and elder brother of Conrad IV of Germany. He was the seventh Henry to rule Germany, but in order to avoid confusion with Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, he is usually numbered Henry
1247 Ermesinde Countess of Luxembourg Countess of Luxembourg, reigned between 1197 and 1247. She was the only child of Count Henry IV and his second wife, Agnes of Guelders
1479 Eleanor of Navarre Aragon , Regent and the queen regnant of Navarre in 1479. She was crowned on 28 January 1479 in Tudela
1517 Catherine of Navarre Queen of Navarre, reigned from 1483 until 1517. She was also Duchess of Gandia, Montblanc, and Peñafiel, Countess of Foix, Bigorre, and Ribagorza, and Viscountess of Béarn
1538 Albrecht Altdorfer a German painter, engraver and architect of the Renaissance working in Regensburg. Along with Lucas Cranach the Elder and Wolf Huber he is regarded to be the main representative of the so-called Danube School setting biblical and historical subjects against landscape backgrounds of expressive colours. As an artist also making small intricate engravings he is seen to belong to the Nuremberg Little Masters
1554 Lord Guildford Dudley the husband of Lady Jane Grey who, declared as his heir by King Edward VI, occupied the English throne from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Guildford Dudley enjoyed a humanist education and was married to Jane in a magnificent celebration about six weeks before the King's death. After Guildford's father, the Duke of Northumberland, had engineered Jane's accession, Jane and Guildford spent her brief rule residing in the Tower of London. They were still in the Tower when their regime collapsed and remained there, in different quarters, as prisoners. They were condemned to death for high treason in November 1553. Queen Mary I was inclined to spare their lives, but Thomas Wyatt's rebellion against her plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the young couple's execution, a measure that was widely seen as unduly harsh
1554 Lady Jane Grey an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
1559 Otto Henry Elector Palatine Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559. He was a son of Rupert, Count Palatine, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; and of Elizabeth of Bavaria-Landshut, daughter of George of Bavaria
1571 Nicholas Throckmorton an English diplomat and politician, who was an ambassador to France and played a key role in the relationship between Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots.
1576 John Albert I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow from 1547 to 1556 and of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1556 to 1576. In 1549 John Albert I saw to it that the parliament of Mecklenburg carried through the Reformation for the entire Duchy
1578 Catherine of Austria Queen of Portugal Queen of Portugal as wife of King John III, and regent during the minority of her grandson, King Sebastian, from 1557 until 1562.
1590 François Hotman a French Protestant lawyer and writer, associated with the legal humanists and with the monarchomaques, who struggled against absolute monarchy. His first name is often written 'Francis' in English. His surname is Latinized by himself as Hotomanus, by others as Hotomannus and Hottomannus. He has been called "one of the first modern revolutionaries"
1612 Jodocus Hondius a Flemish / Dutch engraver, and cartographer. He is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. He helped establish Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century
1624 George Heriot a Scottish goldsmith and philanthropist. He is chiefly remembered today as founder of George Heriot's School, a large independent school in Edinburgh; his name has also been given to Heriot-Watt University, as well as several streets in the same city
1627 Karl I Prince of Liechtenstein the first Liechtenstein to become the Prince of Liechtenstein, thus he was the founder of the Princely Family of Liechtenstein.
1630 Fynes Moryson spent most of the decade of the 1590s travelling on the European continent and the eastern Mediterranean lands. He wrote about it later in his multi-volume "Itinerary", a work of value to historians as a picture of the social conditions existing in the lands he visited
1640 Michael Altenburg a German theologian and composer.
1659 Duchess Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia an Electress of Saxony as the spouse of John George I, Elector of Saxony.
1689 Marie Louise of Orléans (1662–1689) Queen consort of Spain from 1679 to 1689 as the first wife of King Charles II of Spain. She was a granddaughter of Louis XIII of France; this made her a petite-fille de France. In her adopted country, she was known as María Luisa de Orleans
1692 Hendrick Hamel the first Westerner to write and experience first-hand in the Joseon Dynasty era in Korea. He later wrote "Hamel's Journal and a Description of the Kingdom of Korea, 1653-1666", published after his return to the Netherlands
1700 Aleksei Shein Semyonovich Shein , Russian commander and statesman, the first Russian Generalissimus , boyar, great-grandson of Mikhail Shein.
1712 Marie Adélaïde of Savoy the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy. She was the eldest daughter of Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and of Anne Marie d'Orléans. Her betrothal to the Duke of Burgundy in June 1696 was part of the Treaty of Turin, signed on 29 August 1696. She was the mother of the future King Louis XV of France. Styled as Duchess of Burgundy after her marriage, she became Dauphine of France upon the death of her father-in-law, Le Grand Dauphin, in 1711. She died of measles in 1712, followed by her husband a week later
1713 Jahandar Shah a Mughal Emperor who ruled India for a brief period in 1712–1713. His title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan
1719 Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt a Swedish general.
1724 Elkanah Settle an English poet and playwright.
1728 Agostino Steffani an Italian ecclesiastic, diplomat and composer.
1730 Luca Carlevarijs an Italian painter and engraver of landscapes.
1737 Benjamin Schmolck a German Lutheran composer of hymns.
1738 James Sherard an English apothecary, botanist, and amateur musician. He was born in Bushby, Leicestershire to George and Mary Sherwood; it is unknown why his surname was changed. His older brother, William, also became a noted botanist. James Sherard may have been educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood, which his brother attended, but his name is nowhere to be found in the published list of students. On 7 February 1682, apothecary Charles Watts, who served as curator of Chelsea Physic Garden, took him in as an apprentice. After honing his craft with Watts, Sherard moved to Mark Lane, London, where he started his own business
1762 Laurent Belissen a French Baroque composer. He was born in Aix-en-Provence and may have been among the last students of Guillaume Poitevin, then maître de musique at the choir school of the Aix Cathedral
1763 Pierre de Marivaux a French novelist and dramatist.
1763 Gottfried Heinrich Bach the firstborn son of Johann Sebastian Bach by his second wife Anna Magdalena Wilcke.
1771 Adolf Frederick King of Sweden King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
1789 Ethan Allen a farmer; businessman; land speculator; philosopher; writer; and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold
1794 Mahadaji Shinde a Maratha ruler of the Maratha Empire of the state of Gwalior in central India. He was the fifth and youngest son of Sardar Ranoji Rao Scindia
1798 Stanisław August Poniatowski the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and a supporter of progressive reforms, he is also remembered as the last king of the Commonwealth whose election was marred by serious irregularities, and the one who failed to prevent Poland's destruction
1799 František Xaver Dušek a Czech composer and one of the most important harpsichordists and pianists of his time.
1799 Lazzaro Spallanzani an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory , though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur
1804 Immanuel Kant widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to have a major influence in contemporary thought, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics
1814 Eduard Sandifort a Dutch physician and anatomist. He received his medical doctorate degree from Leiden University in 1763, and worked as a general practitioner in The Hague. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Swedish, and Italian. He became a professor of anatomy and surgery in 1771 at Leiden University. His most important writings are Observationes Anatomico-pathologicæ , Excercitationes anatomicoacademicæ , and the Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavæ , which was finished by his son, Gerard Sandifort. Sandifort translated Nils Rosén von Rosenstein's Underrättelser om barn-sjukdomar och deras botemedel to Dutch in 1768. Sandifort was elected in 1768 as a foreign member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
1815 Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty a French cavalry commander during the French Revolutionary Wars who rose to the rank of General of Division in 1803 and subsequently held important military commands during the Napoleonic Wars.
1834 Friedrich Schleiermacher a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of Higher Criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound impact on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity. The Neo-Orthodoxy movement of the twentieth century, typically seen to be spearheaded by Karl Barth, was in many ways an attempt to challenge his influence
1837 Ludwig Börne a German political writer and satirist.
1839 Duchess Therese of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a Duchess of Mecklenburg. Through her marriage to Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Therese was also a member of the House of Thurn and Taxis
1841 Astley Cooper an English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.
1856 Giuseppe Donizetti was, from 1828, Instructor General of the Imperial Ottoman Music at the court of Sultan Mahmud II.
1857 Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy a Russian nobleman and soldier in the era of the French Revolutionary Wars. He belonged to the famous Tolstoy family