February 12 events in history

881 Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Holy Roman Emperor
1429 English forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orléans from attack by the Comte de Clermont and Sir John Stewart of Darnley in the Battle of Rouvray (also known as the Battle of the Herrings)
1502 Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India
1541 Santiago, Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia
1554 A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason
1593 Japanese invasion of Korea: Approximately 3,000 Joseon defenders led by general Kwon Yul successfully repel more than 30,000 Japanese forces in the Siege of Haengju
1689 The Convention Parliament declares that the flight to France in 1688 by James II, the last Roman Catholic British monarch, constitutes an abdication
1733 Englishman James Oglethorpe founds Georgia, the 13th colony of the Thirteen Colonies, and its first city at Savannah (known as Georgia Day)
1771 Gustav III becomes the King of Sweden
1814 Battle of Château-Thierry (1814)
1816 The Teatro di San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is destroyed by fire
1817 An Argentine/Chilean patriotic army, after crossing the Andes, defeats Spanish troops on the Battle of Chacabuco
1818 Bernardo O'Higgins formally approves the Chilean Declaration of Independence near Concepción, Chile
1825 The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government by the Treaty of Indian Springs, and migrate west
1832 Ecuador annexes the Galápagos Islands
1851 Edward Hargraves announces that he has found gold in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, starting the Australian gold rushes
1855 Michigan State University is established
1894 Anarchist Émile Henry hurls a bomb into the Cafe Terminus in Paris, France, killing one and wounding 20
1909 The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded
1909 New Zealand's worst maritime disaster of the 20th century happens when the SS Penguin, an inter-island ferry, sinks and explodes at the entrance to Wellington Harbour
1912 The Xuantong Emperor, the last Emperor of China, abdicates
1914 In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place
1924 George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue received its premiere in a concert titled "An Experiment in Modern Music," in Aeolian Hall, New York, by Paul Whiteman and his band, with Gershwin playing the piano
1934 The Austrian Civil War begins
1934 In Spain the national council of Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista decides to merge the movement with the Falange Española
1935 USS Macon, one of the two largest helium-filled airships ever created, crashes into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California and sinks
1946 World War II: Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats
1946 African American United States Army veteran Isaac Woodard is severely beaten by a South Carolina police officer to the point where he loses his vision in both eyes. The incident later galvanizes the Civil Rights Movement and partially inspires Orson Welles' film Touch of Evil
1947 A meteor creates an impact crater in Sikhote-Alin, in the Soviet Union
1947 Christian Dior unveils a "New Look", helping Paris regain its position as the capital of the fashion world
1961 Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus
1963 Construction begins on the Gateway Arch in St. Louis
1968 Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre
1974 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970, is exiled from the Soviet Union
1983 100 women protest in Lahore, Pakistan against military dictator Zia-ul-Haq's proposed Law of Evidence. The women were tear-gassed, baton-charged and thrown into lock-up. The women were successful in repealing the law
1990 Carmen Lawrence becomes the first female Premier in Australian history when she becomes Premier of Western Australia
1992 The current Constitution of Mongolia comes into effect
1994 Four men break into the National Gallery of Norway and steal Edvard Munch's iconic painting The Scream
1999 United States President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial
2001 NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touches down in the "saddle" region of 433 Eros, becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid
2002 The trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, begins at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, Netherlands. He dies four years later before its conclusion
2002 An Iran Airtour Tupolev Tu-154 crashes in the mountains outside Khorramabad, Iran while descending for a landing at Khorramabad Airport, killing 119
2004 The city of San Francisco, California begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in response to a directive from Mayor Gavin Newsom
2009 Colgan Air Flight 3407 crashes into a house in Clarence Center, New York while on approach to Buffalo Niagara International Airport, killing all on board and one on the ground