Born on February 13

711 Emperor Jimmu the first emperor of Japan, according to legend. His accession is traditionally dated as 660 He is a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu through her grandson Ninigi, as well as a descendant of the storm god Susanoo. He launched a military expedition from Hyuga near the Inland Sea, captured Yamato, and established this as his center of power
988 Adalbert Atto of Canossa the first Count of Canossa and founder of that noble house which eventually was to play a determinant rôle in the political settling of Italy and the Investiture Controversy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
1067 Geoffrey II of Provence the first count of Forcalquier following the death of his father Fulk Bertrand in 1062. His elder brother Bertrand II inherited Provence, but not the title of margrave. Geoffrey himself is often counted amongst the co-counts of Provence of the era. It is not certain that his region of Forcalquier was regarded as a dinstinct entity and not merely the Provençal demesne under his charge
1457 Mary of Burgundy Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over the Low Countries from 1477 until her death. As the only child of Charles the Bold and his wife Isabella of Bourbon, she was the heiress to the vast, and vastly wealthy, Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477, and was accordingly often referred to as Mary the Rich
1480 Girolamo Aleandro an Italian cardinal, and the first cardinal appointed in pectore.
1599 Pope Alexander VII Pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667.
1602 William V Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in the Holy Roman Empire from 1627 to 1637.
1610 Jean de Labadie a 17th-century French pietist. Originally a Roman Catholic Jesuit priest, he became a member of the Reformed Church in 1650, before founding the community which became known as the Labadists in 1669. At its height the movement numbered around 600 with thousands of adherents further afield. It attracted some notable female converts such as the famed poet and scholar, Anna Maria van Schurman, and the entomological artist Maria Merian
1638 Frederick Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow I of Mecklenburg-Grabow, Duke of Mecklenburg.
1652 Anton Domenico Gabbiani an Italian painter and active in a late Baroque style.
1657 Miles Sindercombe the leader of a group that tried to assassinate Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell during the period of the Protectorate in 1657.
1664 Teodor Andrzej Potocki a Polish nobleman , Primate of Poland, interrex in 1733.
1669 Jean Charles Chevalier Folard born at Avignon.
1672 Étienne François Geoffroy a French physician and chemist, best known for his 1718 affinity tables. He first contemplated a career as an apothecary, but then decided to practice medicine. He is sometimes known as Geoffroy the Elder
1680 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (governor) the governor of the Austrian Netherlands between 1725 and 1741.
1682 Giovanni Battista Piazzetta an Italian Rococo painter of religious subjects and genre scenes.
1704 Robert Dodsley an English bookseller, poet, playwright, and miscellaneous writer.
1705 Franciszka Urszula Radziwiłłowa a Polish-Lithuanian noble dramatist and writer, first Polish woman playwright.
1707 Claude Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon a French novelist.
1718 George Brydges Rodney 1st Baron Rodney a British naval officer. He is best known for his commands in the American War of Independence, particularly his victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes in 1782. It is often claimed that he was the commander to have pioneered the tactic of "breaking the line"
1721 John Reid (British Army officer) a British army general and founder of the chair of music at the University of Edinburgh.
1723 Antoine Louis a French surgeon and physiologist who was born in Metz.
1728 John Hunter (surgeon) a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was a teacher of, friend of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. His wife, Anne Hunter , was a minor poet, some of whose poems were set to music by Joseph Haydn
1734 Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec a Breton explorer and French naval officer.
1740 Sophie Arnould a French operatic soprano.
1744 David Allan (painter) a Scottish painter and illustrator, best known for historical subjects and genre works. He was born at Alloa in central Scotland. On leaving Foulis's academy of painting at Glasgow , after seven years' successful study, he obtained the patronage of Lord Cathcart and of Erskine of Mar, on whose estate he had been born. Erskine made it possible for him to travel to Rome , where he remained until 1777, studying under Gavin Hamilton and copying the old masters
1756 Louis-Marie-Joseph Maximilian Caffarelli du Falga a French commander and scholar. His younger brothers Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga and Louis-Marie-Joseph Caffarelli were also generals
1768 Charles-Étienne Gudin de La Sablonnière a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
1768 Édouard Mortier duc de Trévise a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I.
1769 Ivan Krylov Russia's best known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors. While many of his earlier fables were loosely based on Aesop's and La Fontaine's, later fables were original work, often with a satirical bent
1780 Lewis David de Schweinitz a German-American botanist and mycologist. He is considered by some the "Father of North American Mycology", but also made significant contributions to botany
1783 Guglielmo Pepe an Italian general and patriot. He was brother to Florestano Pepe and cousin to Gabriele Pepe. He was married to Mary Ann Coventry, a Scottish woman
1784 Nikolay Gnedich a Russian poet and translator best known for his idyll The Fishers. His translation of the Iliad is still the standard one
1787 Hieronymus Payer an Austrian composer and pianist.
1791 Sylvester Shchedrin a Russian landscape painter.
1793 Philipp Veit a German Romantic painter. To Veit is due the credit of having been the first to revive the almost forgotten technique of fresco painting
1798 Heinrich Alexander von Arnim a Prussian statesman.
1804 Jean-Charles Prince a Canadian Roman Catholic priest, teacher, seminary administrator, editor, and Bishop of Saint-Hyacinthe from 1852 to 1860.
1805 Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function.
1806 Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov a Russian naval officer who took part in the Crimean War.
1809 Victor Mottez a French fresco painter, painter and portraitist.
1811 François Achille Bazaine a French general and from 1864, a Marshal of France, who surrendered the last organized French army to the Prussians during the Franco-Prussian war. He was the first Marshal who had started as a legionnaire and like the great Marshals of the First Empire, had risen from the ranks. During four decades of distinguished service under Louis-Philippe and then Napoleon III, he held every rank in the Army from Fusilier to Marshal of France. He became renowned for his determination to lead from the front, for his impassive bearing under fire and for personal bravery verging on the foolhardy. He was sentenced to death by the government of the Third Republic, for his surrender of the fortress city of Metz and his army of 180,000 men to the Prussians on 27 October 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. This sentence was commuted to 20 years imprisonment in exile, from which he subsequently escaped. He eventually settled in Spain where aged 77, he died alone and impoverished in 1888. To the Foreign Legion he remains a hero and to this day is honoured as one of their bravest soldiers
1815 Rufus Wilmot Griswold an American anthologist, editor, poet, and critic. Born in Vermont, Griswold left home when he was 15 years old. He worked as a journalist, editor, and critic in Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere. He built up a strong literary reputation, in part due to his 1842 collection The Poets and Poetry of America. This anthology, the most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry. He produced revised versions and similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity. Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, although they commented harshly on Griswold's abrasive character. Griswold was married three times: his first wife died young, his second marriage ended in a public and controversial divorce, and his third wife left him after the previous divorce was almost repealed
1818 Mikhail Katkov a Conservative Russian journalist influential during the reign of Alexander III.
1818 Angelica Singleton Van Buren the daughter-in-law of the 8th United States President Martin Van Buren. She was married to the President's son, Abraham Van Buren. She assumed the post of First Lady because the president's wife, Hannah Van Buren had died 17 years earlier and he remained unwed throughout the rest of his life. She is the youngest woman ever to hold the title of First Lady
1819 Francis Smith (Australian politician) a British lawyer, judge and politician, who was the fourth Premier of Tasmania from 12 May 1857 until 1 November 1860.
1819 James Cockburn (politician) a Canadian Conservative politician, and a father of Canadian Confederation.
1823 Adolfo Targioni Tozzetti an Italian entomologist who specialised in Sternorrhyncha. He was Professor of Botany and Zoology in Florence, associated with Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze where his collection remains today at La Specola. He was especially interested in pest species, mainly mealybugs, scale insects and other pests that attack citrus and peaches. He described many new taxa
1828 Morten Müller a Norwegian landscape painter.
1830 Cyrille Rose an important French Clarinetist, and served as principal clarinet at the Paris Opera. He was a teacher and composer of pedagogical material for the clarinet, much of which is still widely in use today