Born on February 14

585 'Amr ibn al-'As most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. A contemporary of Muhammad, and one of the Sahaba , who rose quickly through the Muslim hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 He founded the Egyptian capital of Fustat and built the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As at its center
1164 Sviatoslav Olgovich the Prince of Novgorod ; Novgorod-Seversky ; Belgorod Kievsky ; and Chernigov. He was the son of Oleg Sviatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov with an unnamed daughter of Asaduk, Khan of Khumans
1313 Thomas de Beauchamp 11th Earl of Warwick an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War. In 1348 he became one of the founders and the third Knight of the Order of the Garter
1368 Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411. He was regarded as highly educated, spoke several languages and was – unlike his father Charles – an outgoing person who also took pleasure in the tournament
1404 Leon Battista Alberti an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man. Although he is often characterized as an "architect" exclusively, as James Beck has observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's 'fields' over others as somehow functionally independent and self-sufficient is of no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive explorations in the fine arts." Alberti's life was described in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects
1408 John FitzAlan 14th Earl of Arundel an English nobleman and military commander during the later phases of the Hundred Years' War. His father, John FitzAlan, 3rd Baron Maltravers, fought a long battle to lay claim to the Arundel earldom, a battle that was not finally resolved until after the father's death, when John FitzAlan the son was finally confirmed in the title in 1433
1452 Pandolfo Petrucci a ruler of the Italian city of Siena during the Renaissance.
1468 Johannes Werner a German parish priest in Nuremberg and a mathematician. His primary work was in astronomy, mathematics, and geography, although he was also considered a skilled instrument maker
1483 Ridolfo Ghirlandaio an Italian Renaissance painter active mainly in Florence. Ridolfo Ghirlandaio was the son of the Italian Renaissance painter Domenico Ghirlandaio
1483 Babur a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Timur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. Culturally, he was greatly influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent
1490 Valentin Friedland an eminent German scholar and educationist of the Reformation. Friedland was a friend of Martin Luther and Melanchthon. His fame as a teacher was an attraction of Goldberg in Silesia, where he taught pupils from far and near. The secret of his success lay in his inculcating on his pupils respect for their own honour. He had a great faith in the intelligence that evinced itself in clear expression
1515 Frederick III Elector Palatine a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. He was a son of John II of Simmern and inherited the Palatinate from the childless Elector Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine in 1559. He was a devout convert to Calvinism, and made Calvinism the official religion of his domain. Under his supervision the Heidelberg Catechism was constructed. His support of Calvinism gave the German Reformed movement a foothold within the Holy Roman Empire
1545 Lucrezia de' Medici Duchess of Ferrara the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleanor of Toledo.
1602 Francesco Cavalli an Italian composer of the early Baroque period. His real name was Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni, but he is better known by that of Cavalli, the name of his patron Federico Cavalli, a Venetian nobleman
1614 John Wilkins an English clergyman, natural philosopher and author, as well as one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his death
1652 Camille d'Hostun duc de Tallard a French noble, diplomat and military commander, who became Marshal of France.
1679 Georg Friedrich Kauffmann a Baroque composer and organist from southern Germany who composed primarily sacred works for the organ and voice.
1680 John Sidney 6th Earl of Leicester a Privy Councillor during the Georgian era.
1692 Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée a French dramatist who blurred the lines between comedy and tragedy with his comédie larmoyante.
1701 Enrique Flórez a Spanish historian.
1704 Ivan Betskoy a Russian school reformer who served as Catherine II's advisor on education and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts for thirty years. Perhaps the crowning achievement of his long career was the establishment of Russia's first unified system of public education
1745 Madhavrao I fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. Under his peshwaship, Maratha power recovered from the losses suffered during the Panipat Campaign, a phenomenon known as "Maratha Resurrection". He is considered one of the greatest personalities of the Maratha history
1750 René Louiche Desfontaines a French botanist.
1755 Henry Phipps 1st Earl of Mulgrave a British soldier and politician. He notably served as Foreign Secretary under William Pitt the Younger from 1805 to 1806
1755 Charles Louis Hereditary Prince of Baden heir apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. He was born in Karlsruhe
1757 Kazimierz Nestor Sapieha a Polish-Lithuanian noble and one the creators of the Constitution of May 3.
1759 Franz de Paula Adam von Waldstein an Austrian soldier, explorer and naturalist.
1763 Jean Victor Marie Moreau a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte to power, but later became a rival and was banished to the United States.
1766 Thomas Robert Malthus an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert
1768 Paul Usteri a Swiss physician, botanist, publicist and politician.
1773 Jules Paul Benjamin Delessert a French banker and naturalist.
1776 Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck a prolific German botanist, physician, zoologist, and natural philosopher. He was a contemporary of Goethe and was born within the lifetime of Linnaeus. He described approximately 7,000 plant species. His last official act as president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina was to admit Charles Darwin as a member. He was the author of numerous monographs on botany and zoology. His best-known works deal with fungi
1777 Prince Parnaoz of Georgia a Georgian prince of the Bagrationi dynasty, the 14th son of Heraclius II, the penultimate king of Kartli and Kakheti, by his third marriage to Queen Darejan Dadiani. Parnaoz tried to challenge the recently established Imperial Russian rule in Georgia and in 1804 headed an unsuccessful insurrection of the Georgian mountaineers in the course of which he was arrested and deported to Russia. Afterwards, he spent most of his life in Petersburg, becoming the first Georgian translator of the 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1778 Fernando Sor a Spanish classical guitarist and composer. While he is best known for his guitar compositions, he also composed music for a wide range of genres, including opera, orchestra, string quartet, piano, voice, and ballet. His ballet score Cendrillon received over one hundred performances. Sor’s works for guitar range from pieces for beginning players to advanced players such as Variations on a Theme of Mozart. Sor’s contemporaries considered him to be the best guitarist in the world, and his works for guitar have been widely played and reprinted since his death. Although modern classical guitar players usually do, Sor rarely used his annular finger or nails when playing
1780 Johann Friedrich Naumann a German scientist, engraver, and editor. He is regarded as the founder of scientific ornithology in Europe. He published The Natural History of German Birds and The Eggs of German Birds. His father Johann Andreas Naumann was a naturalist, and his brother Carl Andreas Naumann was also an ornithologist
1780 John Bowen (colonist) a naval officer and colonial administrator, who led the first settlement of Tasmania at Risdon Cove.
1781 Valentín Gómez Farías the President of Mexico for five short periods in the 1830s and 1840s.
1784 Heinrich Baermann generally considered as being not only an outstanding performer of his time, but highly influential in the creation of several important composers' works for his instrument.
1787 Peter Krukenberg a German pathologist who was a native of Königslutter. He was son-in-law to anatomist Johann Christian Reil , and grandfather to pathologist Friedrich Ernst Krukenberg and surgeon Hermann Krukenberg
1791 Hugh Cuming an English collector who was interested in natural history, particularly in conchology and botany. He has been described as the "Prince of Collectors"
1793 Karl Christian Ulmann a Baltic German theologian.
1794 Frank Abney Hastings a British naval officer and Philhellene.
1799 Walenty Wańkowicz a Belarusian painter.
1800 Emory Washburn a United States lawyer, politician, and historian. He was Governor of Massachusetts for one term , and served for many years on the faculty of Harvard Law School. His history of the early years of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court is still considered a foundational work on the subject
1802 Józef Bohdan Zaleski a Polish Romantic poet. A friend of Adam Mickiewicz, Zaleski founded the "Ukrainian poetic school."
1806 Joseph-François Malgaigne a French surgeon and medical historian born in Charmes-sur-Moselle, Vosges.
1807 Ernest Legouvé a French dramatist.
1807 Max Emanuel Ainmiller a German artist and glass painter.
1808 Michael Costa (conductor) an Italian-born conductor and composer who achieved success in England.
1811 Georg Heinrich Ferdinand Nesselmann a German orientalist, philologist with interests in Baltic languages, and a mathematics historian.