February 14 events in history

748 Abbasid Revolution: The Hashimi rebels under Abu Muslim Khorasani take Merv, capital of the Umayyad province Khorasan, marking the consolidation of the Abbasid revolt
842 Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German languages
1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry of Bavaria, King of Germany and of Italy, as Holy Roman Emperor
1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
1349 Several hundred Jews are burned to death by mobs while the remainder of their population is forcibly removed from the city of Strasbourg
1400 Richard II dies, most likely from starvation, in Pontefract Castle, on the orders of Henry Bolingbroke
1556 Thomas Cranmer is declared a heretic
1778 The United States Flag is formally recognized by a foreign naval vessel for the first time, when French Admiral Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte renders a nine gun salute to USS Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones
1779 James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii
1779 American Revolutionary War: the Battle of Kettle Creek is fought in Georgia
1797 French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Cape St. Vincent – John Jervis, (later 1st Earl of St Vincent) and Horatio Nelson (later 1st Viscount Nelson) lead the British Royal Navy to victory over a Spanish fleet in action near Gibraltar
1804 Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire
1831 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay
1835 The original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, in the Latter Day Saint movement, is formed in Kirtland, Ohio
1849 In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first serving President of the United States to have his photograph taken
1852 Great Ormond St Hospital for Sick Children, the first hospital in England to provide in-patient beds specifically for children (The National Children's Hospital in Dublin was founded over 30 years previously in 1821), is founded in London
1855 Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas
1859 Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state
1876 Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray
1879 The War of the Pacific breaks out when Chilean armed forces occupy the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta
1899 Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections
1900 Second Boer War: In South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State
1903 The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into the Department of Commerce and the Department of Labor)
1912 In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned
1918 The Soviet Union adopts the Gregorian calendar (on 1 February according to the Julian calendar)
1919 The Polish–Soviet War begins
1920 The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago
1924 The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company changes its name to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
1929 Saint Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of Al Capone's gang, are murdered in Chicago, Illinois
1942 Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore
1943 World War II: Rostov-on-Don, Russia is liberated
1943 World War II: Tunisia Campaign – General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Fifth Panzer Army launches a concerted attack against Allied positions in Tunisia
1944 World War II: Anti-Japanese revolt on Java
1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia aboard the USS Quincy, officially beginning U.S.-Saudi diplomatic relations
1945 World War II: On the first day of the bombing of Dresden, the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin fire-bombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony
1945 World War II: Navigational error leads to the mistaken bombing of Prague, Czechoslovakia by an American squadron of B-17s assisting in the Soviet's Vistula–Oder Offensive
1945 World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans
1946 The Bank of England is nationalized
1949 The Knesset (Israeli parliament) convenes for the first time
1949 The Asbestos Strike begins in Canada. The strike marks the beginning of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec
1950 Chinese Civil War: The National Revolutionary Army instigates the unsuccessful Battle of Tianquan against the People's Liberation Army
1956 The XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union begins in Moscow. On the last night of the meeting, Premier Nikita Khrushchev condemns Joseph Stalin's crimes in a secret speech
1961 Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized at the University of California
1962 First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy takes television viewers on a tour of the White House
1966 Australian currency is decimalised
1979 In Kabul, Setami Milli militants kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police
1981 Stardust Disaster: A fire in a Dublin nightclub kills 48 people
1983 United American Bank of Knoxville, Tennessee collapses. Its president, Jake Butcher, is later convicted of fraud
1989 Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 million to the Indian government for damages it caused in the 1984 Bhopal disaster
1989 Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issues a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses