Died on February 16

1184 Richard of Dover a medieval Benedictine monk and Archbishop of Canterbury. Employed by Thomas Becket immediately before Becket's death, Richard arranged for Becket to be buried in Canterbury Cathedral and eventually succeeded Becket at Canterbury in a contentious election. Much of Richard's time as archbishop was spent in a dispute with Roger de Pont L'Evêque, the Archbishop of York over the primacy of England, and with St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury over the archbishop's jurisdiction over the abbey. Richard enjoyed better relations with King Henry II of England than Becket had, and was employed by the king on diplomatic affairs. Richard also enjoyed the trust of the papacy, and served as a judge for the papacy. Several of his questions to Pope Alexander III were collected into the Decretals, a collection of ecclesiastical laws, and his patronage of canon lawyers did much to advance the study of canon law in England
1247 Henry Raspe Landgrave of Thuringia elected anti-king in 1246–1247 in opposition to Conrad IV of Germany.
1264 Azzo VII d'Este marquis of Ferrara from 1215 to 1222, and again from 1240 until his death.
1279 Afonso III of Portugal the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, from 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca of Castile; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal, who was removed from the throne on 4 January 1248
1281 Gertrude of Hohenburg the first wife of Rudolph I of Germany.
1390 Rupert I Elector Palatine Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390.
1391 John V Palaiologos a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341, at age nine.
1402 William I of Guelders and Jülich Duke of Guelders, as William I, from 1377 and Duke of Jülich, as William III, from 1393. William was known for his military activities, participating in the Prussian crusade five times and battling with neighbors in France and Brabant throughout his rule. His allies included Holy Roman Emperors, Charles IV and Wenceslaus, Richard II of England, and Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. During his reign the duchies of Guelders and Jülich were temporarily unified
1442 Siemowit V of Masovia from 1426-1434 a Prince of Masovia in Rawa, Plock, Sochaczew, Gostynin, Płońsk, Wizna and Belz i.e., hereditary vassal Polish, the breakdown in 1434 goes as follows; prince of Rawa, Gostynin and Sochaczew.
1531 Johannes Stöffler a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, priest, maker of astronomical instruments and professor at the University of Tübingen.
1560 Jean du Bellay a French cardinal and diplomat, younger brother of Guillaume du Bellay, and bishop of Bayonne in 1526, member of the privy council in 1530, and bishop of Paris in 1532.
1579 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada a Spanish explorer and conquistador in Colombia. He explored the northern part of South America. A well-educated lawyer he was one of the few intellectuals of the Spanish conquest. He was an effective organizer and leader, designed the first legislation for the government of the area, and was its historian. After 1569 he undertook explorations toward the east, but returned to New Granada in 1573, defeated and indebted and out of power. While successful in many of his exploits, he thus ended his career in failure; he has been suggested as a possible model for Cervantes' Don Quixote
1613 Mikalojus Daukša a Lithuanian and Latin religious writer, translator and a Catholic church official. He is best known as the first among Lithuania's humanists to underline the need to codify and promote the Lithuanian language over Chancery Ruthenian and Polish, which were in use in the Grand Duchy at the time. Daukša's Lithuanian translation of Jacob Ledesma's catechism became the first book in Lithuanian to be published in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1624 Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke of Lennox a Scottish nobleman and politician. He was the son of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, and his wife, Catherine de Balsac. Ludovic was involved in the Plantation of Ulster in Ireland and the colonization of Maine in New England. Richmond's Island and Cape Richmond, as well as Richmond, Maine , are named for him
1645 Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1585–1645) a Spanish military leader during the Eighty Years' War, Thirty Years' War and the War of the Mantuan Succession.
1653 Johannes Schultz (composer) a German composer.
1656 Johann Klaj born at Meissen in Saxony.
1665 Stefan Czarniecki a Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth general and nobleman. In his career he rose from a petty nobleman to a magnate holding one of the highest offices in the Commonwealth, something that was unprecedented in the Commonwealth history. On 22 July 1664 he received the office of the voivode of Kiev and on 2 January 1665, a few weeks before his death, he was given the office of Field Hetman of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. He is remembered as an accomplished military commander, and regarded as a Polish national hero. His status in Polish history is acknowledged by a mention of his name in the Polish national anthem
1687 Charles Cotton an English poet and writer, best known for translating the work of Michel de Montaigne from the French, for his contributions to The Compleat Angler, and for the influential The Compleat Gamester attributed to him.
1710 Esprit Fléchier a French preacher and author, Bishop of Nîmes from 1687 to 1710.
1721 James Craggs the Younger a British politician.
1728 Heinrich of Saxe-Weissenfels Count of Barby a German prince of the House of Wettin and count of Barby.
1728 Maria Aurora von Königsmarck a Swedish noblewoman of Brandenburg extraction and mistress of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.
1738 Carel de Moor a Dutch Golden Age etcher and painter. He was a pupil of Gerard Dou
1753 Giacomo Facco an Italian Baroque violinist, conductor and composer. One of the most famous Italian composers of his day, he was completely forgotten until 1962, when his work was discovered by composer, conductor and musicologist Uberto Zanolli
1754 Richard Mead an English physician. His work, A Short Discourse concerning Pestilential Contagion, and the Method to be used to prevent it , was of historic importance in the understanding of transmissible diseases
1775 Jean-Baptiste Vivien de Châteaubrun a French dramatist and a member of the Académie française. He spent 40 years of his life polishing two plays, but his maid mistook them for wrapping paper, thus losing his life's work. Today, his work Les Troyennes survives
1794 Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne a French churchman, politician and finance minister of Louis XVI.
1799 Charles Theodore Elector of Bavaria Count Palatine and Duke of Bavaria reigned as Prince-Elector and Count palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as Prince-Elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777, until his death. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Sulzbach, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach
1803 Cardinal de Rohan a French bishop of Strasbourg, politician, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, and cadet of the Rohan family. His parents were Hercule Mériadec, Prince of Guéméné and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris
1806 Franz von Weyrother an Austrian staff officer and general who fought during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He drew up the plan which resulted in disastrous defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz, in which Napoleon Bonaparte crushed the combined armies of Austria and Russia
1819 Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes a French painter.
1819 Archibald Hamilton 9th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish peer and politician.
1819 Honoré IV Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 12 March 1795 to 16 February 1819. He was the son of Prince Honoré III by his wife, Maria Caterina Brignole, a Genoese noblewoman. After the fall of Napoleon I, he regained control of the principality thanks to a clause added by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord at the Congress of Vienna stating that, "the Prince of Monaco should return to his estates", and passed on his titles to his eldest son, Honoré V, Prince of Monaco
1820 Georg Carl von Döbeln a Swedish friherre , Lieutenant General and war hero.
1823 Johann Gottfried Schicht a German composer and conductor.
1823 Pierre-Paul Prud'hon a French Romantic painter and draughtsman best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits.
1824 Johann Wolf a German naturalist and ornithologist.
1826 Lindley Murray an American grammarian.
1829 François-Joseph Gossec a French composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works.
1837 Johann Ludwig Klüber a German law professor, author and state official.
1837 Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus a German naturalist and botanist.
1842 Johann Nepomuk Schaller an Austrian sculptor. His most famous work is a bust of Beethoven, created at the request of the composer's friend Karl Holz. It was later presented to the Royal Philharmonic Society, London, on the occasion of the Beethoven Centennial
1844 Heinrich Stölzel a German horn player who developed some of the first valves for brass instruments. He developed the first valve for a brass instrument such as the trumpet {1814} and many others, the Stölzel valve, in 1814, and went on to develop various other designs, some jointly with other inventor musicians
1844 Joseph Crosfield now in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. This business was to become the firm of Joseph Crosfield and Sons
1857 Elisha Kane an American explorer, and a medical officer in the United States Navy during the first half of the 19th century. He was a member of two Arctic expeditions to rescue the explorer Sir John Franklin. He was present at the discovery of Franklin's first winter camp, but he did not find out what had happened to the fatal expedition
1859 François-Léon Benouville a French painter.
1860 Stephen Whitney one of the wealthiest merchants in New York City in the first half of the 19th century. His fortune was considered second only to that of John Jacob Astor. As a prominent citizen of the rapidly growing city, he helped to build some of its institutions, including the Merchants' Exchange Building, the first permanent home of the New York stock exchange
1865 Louis Pierre Gratiolet a French anatomist and zoologist who was a native of Sainte-Foy-la-Grande, Gironde. He succeeded Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as professor of zoology to the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Paris
1869 Basil of Pavlovsky Posad a Russian saint, glorified in 1999 for living a righteous life.