Died on February 17

306 Theodore of Amasea one of the two saints called Theodore, who are venerated as Warrior Saints and Great Martyrs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is also known as Theodore Tyron. The other saint of the same name is Theodore Stratelates, also known as Theodore of Heraclea, but this second St Theodore may never have had a separate existence. When the epithet is omitted, the reference is usually to St Theodore of Amasea
364 Jovian (emperor) Roman Emperor from 363 to 364. Upon the death of emperor Julian the Apostate during his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, Jovian was hastily declared emperor by his soldiers. He sought peace with the Persians on humiliating terms and reestablished Christianity as the state church. His reign only lasted eight months
440 Mesrop Mashtots an Armenian theologian, linguist and hymnologist. He is best known for having invented the Armenian alphabet 405 AD, which was a fundamental step in strengthening the Armenian statehood and the bond between the Armenian Kingdom and Armenians living in the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire. He was also, according to a number of scholars and contemporaneous Armenian sources, the creator of the Caucasian Albanian and Georgian alphabets
661 Finan of Lindisfarne an Irish monk, trained at Iona in Scotland, who became the second Bishop of Lindisfarne from 651 until 661.
1129 Thoros I Prince of Armenia the third lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains”.
1220 Theobald I Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1213 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick II and Agnes of Bar
1339 Otto Duke of Austria a Duke of Austria and the youngest son of Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Tirol.
1371 Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria also known as John Alexander, ruled as Emperor of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371, during the Second Bulgarian Empire. The date of his birth is unknown. He died on 17 February 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. Ivan Alexander began his rule by dealing with internal problems and external threats from Bulgaria's neighbours, the Byzantine Empire and Serbia, as well as leading his empire into a period of economic recovery and cultural and religious renaissance
1411 Süleyman Çelebi an Ottoman prince and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum. The name Çelebi is an honorific title meaning gentleman; see pre-1934 Turkish naming conventions
1493 Przemko III Duke of Opava a member of the Opavian branch of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty. He was titular Duke of Opava and canon of Wrocław, Olomouc and Vienna, as well as Provost of the Othmar parish in Mödling. In the older literature Przemko III is often confused with his uncle Przemko II
1500 Adolph Count of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst a Count of Oldenburg from 1482 until his death.
1504 Eberhard II Duke of Württemberg a German nobleman. He was Count of Württemberg-Stuttgart from 1480 to 1496 as Eberhard VI, and later Duke of Württemberg from 1496 until his death as Eberhard II
1555 Giuliano Bugiardini an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance period known as Mannerism, born and mainly active in Florence.
1596 Friedrich Sylburg a German classical scholar.
1600 Giordano Bruno an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer. He is celebrated for his cosmological theories, which went even further than the then-novel Copernican model, proposing that the stars were just distant suns surrounded by their own exoplanets, and moreover the possibility that these planets could even foster life of their own. He also insisted that the universe is in fact infinite, thus having no celestial body at its "center"
1609 Ferdinando I de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
1612 Patriarch Hermogenes of Moscow the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia from 1606. It was he who inspired the popular uprising that put an end to the Time of Troubles. Hermogenes was glorified by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1913
1612 Ernest of Bavaria Prince-elector-archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1583 to 1612 as successor of the expelled Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. He was also bishop of Münster, Hildesheim, Freising and Liège
1624 Juan de Mariana a Spanish Jesuit priest, Scholastic, historian, and member of the Monarchomachs.
1647 Johann Heermann a German poet and hymn-writer. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 26 October with Philipp Nicolai and Paul Gerhardt
1659 Abel Servien a French diplomat who served Cardinal Mazarin and signed for the French the Treaty of Westphalia. He was an early member of the noblesse de robe in the service of the French state
1664 Ivan Bohun a Ukrainian Cossack colonel. Close associate and friend of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, he opposed both the pacts with Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and with Tsardom of Russia
1672 Madeleine Béjart a French actress and theatre director, one of the most famous French stage actors of the 17th-century. She belonged to the Béjart family, a famous theatre family in 17th-century France. Madeleine was the second child of Joseph and Marie-Herve Bejart. She debuted with her elder brother Joseph at the Theatre du Marais and in the provinces in the late 1630s
1673 Molière considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Among Molière's best-known works are Le Misanthrope , L'École des Femmes , Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur , L'Avare , Le Malade Imaginaire , and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
1680 Frans Post a Dutch painter.
1680 Jan Swammerdam a Dutch biologist and microscopist. His work on insects demonstrated that the various phases during the life of an insect—egg, larva, pupa, and adult—are different forms of the same animal. As part of his anatomical research, he carried out experiments on muscle contraction. In 1658, he was the first to observe and describe red blood cells. He was one of the first people to use the microscope in dissections, and his techniques remained useful for hundreds of years
1680 Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
1694 Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières a French poet born in Paris. She was the daughter of Melchior du Ligier, sieur de la Garde, maitre d'hôtel to the queens Marie de Medici and Anne of Austria
1715 Antoine Galland a French orientalist and archaeologist, most famous as the first European translator of One Thousand and One Nights which he called Les mille et une nuits. His version of the tales appeared in twelve volumes between 1704 and 1717 and exerted a huge influence on subsequent European literature and attitudes to the Islamic world
1719 Boris Sheremetev created the first Russian count in 1706, and was also a diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War. His children included Pyotr Sheremetev and Natalia Sheremeteva. In his youth, Sheremetyev was a page to Tsar Alexis I before starting his military career. From 1671 he served at the imperial court. In 1681 he was a leader at Tambov, commanding the armies fighting the Crimean Khanate, and from 1682 he was a boyar. From 1685 to 1687 he participated in negotiations and the conclusion of the "Eternal Peace of 1686" with Poland and the allied treaty with Austria. From the end of 1687 he commanded the armies in Belgorod defending Russia's southern border, and participated in the Crimean campaigns. After Peter I gained power in 1689, he joined him as a fellow campaigner. He participated along with Mazepa in the war against Turkey during the 1690s. During the Azov campaigns in 1695–96 he commanded armies on the Dnieper River in actions against the Crimean Tatars. In 1697–99 he carried out diplomatic assignments in Poland, Austria, Italy and Malta. In 1698, czar Peter sent a delegation to Malta under Sheremetyev to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet. Sheremetyev also investigated the possibility of future joint ventures with the Knights, including action against the Turks and the possibility of a future Russian naval base
1729 John Ernest IV Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
1732 Louis Marchand a French Baroque organist, harpsichordist, and composer. Born into an organist's family, Marchand was a child prodigy and quickly established himself as one of the best known French virtuosi of his time. He worked as organist of numerous churches and, for a few years, at the French court. Marchand had a violent temperament and an arrogant personality, and his life was filled with scandals, publicized and widely discussed both during his lifetime and after his death. Despite his fame, few of his works survive to this day, and those that do almost all date from his early years. Nevertheless, a few pieces of his, such as the organ pieces Grand dialogue in C and Fond d'orgue in E minor, have been lauded as classic works of the French organ school
1768 Arthur Onslow an English politician. He set a record for length of service when repeatedly elected to serve as Speaker of the House of Commons, where he was known for his integrity
1780 Andreas Felix von Oefele a German historian and librarian.
1788 Maurice Quentin de La Tour a French Rococo portraitist who worked primarily with pastels. Among his most famous subjects were Voltaire, Rousseau, Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour
1790 Cristfried Ganander a Finnish compiler of folk culture, a priest and an 18th-century lexicographer. Ganander's greatest achievement was the compilation of the first fully extensive Finnish-language dictionary which was, however, unpublished. He was also a collector of folk culture well before Elias Lönnrot. His most well-known published work is Mythologia Fennica in 1789, a reference book of folk religion. He also published some poetry and worked as a teacher
1796 James Macpherson a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of poems.
1797 Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony a daughter of King Augustus III of Poland and his wife Maria Josepha of Austria who became Electress of Bavaria.
1800 John MacBride (Royal Navy officer) an officer of the Royal Navy and a politician who saw service during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars, eventually rising to the rank of Admiral of the Blue.
1800 Jean-Baptiste Perrée a French Navy officer and Rear-admiral.
1801 Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia a daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
1805 Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti an Austrian naturalist of Italian origin.
1812 Henri François Anne de Roussel a French naturalist.
1823 Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf a Prussian field marshal and a member of the old junker family von Kleist.
1825 Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet a French politician of the Revolutionary period. His brother, Robert Thomas Lindet, became a constitutional bishop and member of the National Convention. Although his role may not have been spectacular, Jean-Baptiste Lindet came to be the embodiment of the growing middle class that came to dominate French politics during the Revolution
1827 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
1827 Semyon Gangeblov a Russian military commander of the Napoleonic Wars. He came of the Georgian noble family Gangeblidze , which emigrated to Russia in 1724
1830 Marcos Portugal a Portuguese classical composer, who achieved great international fame for his operas in Italian.
1831 Friedrich Wilhelm Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg the first Duke of the Second Line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and founder of a line that includes the Royal Houses of Denmark, Greece, Norway, and the United Kingdom.
1841 Ferdinando Carulli an Italian composer for classical guitar and the author of the influential Méthode complète pour guitare ou lyre, 27 , which contains music still used by student guitarists today. He wrote a variety of works for classical guitar, including numerous solo and chamber works and several concertos. He was an extremely prolific writer, composing over 400 works for the instrument