Born on February 18

1372 Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani a medieval Shafiite Sunni scholar of Islam who represents the entire realm of the Sunni world in the field of Hadith. He is also known as Shaykh al Islam
1515 Valerius Cordus a German physician and botanist who authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias and one of the most celebrated herbals in history. He is also widely credited with developing a method for synthesizing ether
1516 Mary I of England Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her executions of Protestants caused her opponents to give her the sobriquet "Bloody Mary"
1530 Uesugi Kenshin a daimyo who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku period of Japan.
1543 Charles III Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death.
1547 Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī a scholar, philosopher, architect, mathematician, astronomer and a poet in 16th-century Iran. He was born in Baalbek which is a part of ancient Jabal Amel region in south Lebanon but immigrated in his childhood to Safavid Iran with his father. He was one of the earliest astronomers in the Islamic world to suggest the possibility of the Earth's movement prior to the spread of the Copernican theory. He is considered one of the main co-founders of Isfahan School of Islamic Philosophy. In later years he became one of the teachers of Mulla Sadra
1559 Isaac Casaubon a classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then later in England, regarded by many of his time as the most learned man in Europe.
1589 Maarten Gerritsz Vries a 17th-century Dutch cartographer and explorer, the first Western European to leave an account of his visit to the Sea of Okhotsk and the island of Sakhalin.
1602 Per Brahe the Younger a Swedish soldier and statesman. He was a Privy Councillor from 1630 and Lord High Steward from 1640
1609 Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon an English statesman, historian, and maternal grandfather of two English, Scottish and Irish monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.
1615 Maria Caterina Farnese a member of the Ducal House of Farnese. She was the Duchess of Modena as the first wife of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena. In some sources she is known simply as Maria Farnese
1626 Francesco Redi an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. He was the first scientist to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. He was also the first to recognize and correctly describe details of many important parasites, and for this reason, as many historians and scientists claim, he may rightly be called the father of modern parasitology, and also regarded as the founder of experimental biology
1632 Giovanni Battista Vitali an Italian composer and violone player.
1635 Johan Göransson Gyllenstierna a Swedish statesman.
1642 Marie Champmeslé a French actress.
1658 Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre a French author whose ideas were novel for his times. His proposal of an international organisation to maintain peace was perhaps the first in history, with the possible exception of George of Poděbrady's Tractatus. He influenced Rousseau and Kant
1677 Jacques Cassini a French astronomer, son of the famous Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
1703 Corrado Giaquinto an Italian Rococo painter.
1718 Søren Abildgaard a Danish naturalist, writer and illustrator. He was born in Flekkefjord in Norway and died in Copenhagen in Denmark
1732 Johann Christian Kittel a German organist, composer, and teacher. He was one of the last students of Johann Sebastian Bach. His students included Michael Gotthard Fischer, Karl Gottlieb Umbreit, Johann Wilhelm Hässler and Christian Heinrich Rinck
1734 Jean-Marie Roland vicomte de la Platière a French manufacturer in Lyon and became a leader of the Girondist faction in the French Revolution, largely influenced in this direction by his wife, Marie-Jeanne "Manon" Roland de la Platiere. He served as a minister of the interior in King Louis XVI's government in 1792
1745 Alessandro Volta an Italian physicist known for the invention of the battery in the 1800s.
1755 James Hamilton 7th Duke of Hamilton a short-lived Scottish peer.
1770 Christian Heinrich Rinck a German composer and organist of the late classical and early romantic eras.
1772 Giovanni Battista Brocchi an Italian naturalist, mineralogist and geologist.
1775 Thomas Girtin an English painter and etcher. A friend and rival of M. Turner, Girtin played a key role in establishing watercolour as a reputable art form
1788 Alexandre Soumet a French poet.
1798 José Hilario López a Colombian politician and military officer. He was the President of Colombia between 1849 and 1853
1798 Adalbert von Ladenberg a Prussian politician.
1799 Philipp Johann Ferdinand Schur a German-Austrian pharmacist and botanist born in Königsberg.
1802 Gustav Leberecht Flügel a German orientalist.
1803 Camille Roqueplan a French romantic painter of landscapes, historical subjects, and genre scenes, and a lithographer. He was born Camille-Joseph-Étienne Roqueplan in Mallemort, Bouches-du-Rhône, and died in Paris. He studied in Paris with Antoine-Jean Gros and Alexandre Abel de Pujol and became a student at the École des Beaux-Arts in February 1818
1805 Lewis R. Bradley an American politician. He was the second Governor of Nevada in the United States from 1871 to 1879. He was a member of the Democratic Party
1808 Aleksey Gornostayev a Russian architect, notable as a pioneer in Russian Revival, the builder of Valaam Monastery hermitages, Trinity-Sergius Convent in Saint Petersburg and Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki. He is credited with the rebirth of traditional tented roof architecture of Russian North
1814 Samuel Fenton Cary a congressman and significant temperance movement leader in the 19th century. Cary became well-known nationally as a prohibitionist author and lecturer
1815 Jan August Hendrik Leys a Belgian painter and printmaker, who was a leading representative of the historical or Romantic school and a pioneer of the Realist movement in Belgium.
1817 Johannes Bosboom a Dutch painter and watercolorist of the Hague School, known especially for his paintings of church interiors.
1817 Lewis Armistead a Confederate brigadier general in the American Civil War, who was wounded, captured, and died after Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1818 Perucho Figueredo a Cuban poet, musician, and freedom fighter of the 19th century. In the 1860s, he was active in the planning of the Cuban uprising against the Spanish known as the Ten Years' War
1823 Jasper Francis Cropsey an important American landscape artist of the Hudson River School.
1824 Joseph-Antoine Boullan often accused of being a Satanist although he continued to defend his status as a Christian.
1825 Mór Jókai a Hungarian dramatist and novelist.
1827 Heinrich Karl Brugsch a German Egyptologist. He was associated with Auguste Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. He became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo, producing numerous very valuable works and pioneering the decipherment of Demotic, the simplified script of the later Egyptian periods
1830 Abdülaziz the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861
1832 Octave Chanute born in France but considered himself an American. He was a railway engineer and aviation pioneer. He provided many budding enthusiasts, including the Wright brothers with help and advice, and helped to publicize their flying experiments. At his death he was hailed as the father of aviation and the heavier-than-air flying machine
1836 Ramakrishna an Indian mystic during 19th-century. His religious school of thought led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda. He is also referred to as "Paramahamsa" by his devotees, as such he is popularly known as Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
1838 Ernst Mach an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves. As a philosopher of science, he was a major influence on logical positivism, American pragmatism and through his criticism of Newton, a forerunner of Einstein's relativity
1839 Harry Seeley a British paleontologist.
1839 Pascual Cervera y Topete as an admiral of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron during the Spanish-American War, and prior to this served his country in a variety of military and political roles.
1841 Gergely Luthár a Slovene landowner, notary and writer in Hungary.