Died on February 18

814 Angilbert a Frank who served Charlemagne as a diplomat, abbot, poet and semi-son-in-law. He was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated at the palace school in Aquae Grani under Alcuin. He is venerated as a saint, on the day of his death—18 February
901 Thābit ibn Qurra an Arabic Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator of the Islamic Golden Age who lived in Baghdad in the second half of the ninth century during the time of Abbasid Caliphate.
999 Pope Gregory V Pope from 3 May 996 to his death in 999.
1139 Yaropolk II of Kiev Vladimirovich , Prince of Pereyaslav , Velikiy Kniaz of Kiev , son of Vladimir II Monomakh and Gytha of Wessex. He fought in several campaigns against the Polovtsy , once in 1103 and again in 1116
1190 Otto II Margrave of Meissen the Margrave of Meissen from 1157 until his death in 1190. His father was Conrad the Great. He married Hedwig, the daughter of Albert the Bear. He had four children:
1218 Berthold V Duke of Zähringen Duke of Zähringen until his death, succeeding his father Berthold IV in 1186.
1294 Kublai Khan the fifth Khagan of the Ikh Mongol Uls , reigning from 1260 to 1294, and the founder of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a division of the Mongol Empire.
1345 Siemowit II of Masovia Duke of Masovia from 1310 to 1345. He was a member of the House of Piast. Siemowit was Duke of Warsaw and Liw. In 1313, he became the ruler of Duchy of Rawa. He was regent of Płock
1350 Akamatsu Norimura a Japanese samurai of the Akamatsu clan in the Muromachi period. He was governor of Harima Province in Hyogo Prefecture
1379 Albert II Duke of Mecklenburg a feudal lord in Northern Germany on the shores of the Baltic Sea. He reigned as the head of the House of Mecklenburg. His princely seat was located in Schwerin beginning in the 1350s
1397 Enguerrand VII Lord of Coucy a 14th-century French nobleman, the last Sieur de Coucy, and the son-in-law of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Following his marriage to Edward's daughter Isabella of England , Coucy also held the English title of 1st Earl of Bedford, among other English estates granted to the couple by Edward III. Because his life is well-chronicled, and he occupies a pivotal role in late medieval history, notably in the conflict between England and France, historian Barbara Tuchman makes him the main character in A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century
1405 Timur a Turko-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia. Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana during the 1320s or 1330s, he gained control of Western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across West, South and Central Asia and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire and the declining Sultanate of Delhi. From these conquests he founded the Timurid Empire, although it fragmented shortly after his death. He is considered the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian steppe, and his empire set the stage for rise of the more structured and lasting gunpowder empires in the 1500s and 1600s.:1
1445 Maria of Aragon Queen of Castile the first wife and Queen consort of John II of Castile. The daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque, she married her cousin John in 1420
1455 Fra Angelico an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects as having "a rare and perfect talent".
1478 George Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses
1502 Hedwig Jagiellon Duchess of Bavaria the eldest daughter of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland and Archduchess Elisabeth Habsburg of Hungary.
1535 Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist.
1546 Martin Luther a German friar, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation. Initially an Augustinian friar, Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor
1564 Michelangelo an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci
1584 Antonio Francesco Grazzini an Italian author.
1616 Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria a German prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.
1654 Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac a French author, best known for his epistolary essays, which were widely circulated and read in his day. He was one of the founding members of Académie française
1679 Anne Conway Viscountess Conway an English philosopher whose work, in the tradition of the Cambridge Platonists, was an influence on Leibniz. Conway's thought is original as it is rationalist philosophy, with hallmarks of gynocentric concerns and patterns, and in that sense it was unique among seventeenth-century systems
1682 Baldassarre Longhena an Italian architect, who worked mainly in Venice, where he was one of the greatest exponents of Baroque architecture of the period.
1683 Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem a highly esteemed and prolific Dutch Golden Age painter of pastoral landscapes, populated with mythological or biblical figures, but also of a number of allegories and genre pieces.
1689 Alexander Farnese Prince of Parma an Italian military leader, who was Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1678 until 1682.
1703 Ilona Zrínyi one of the last surviving members of the Croatian Zrinski/Zrínyi noble family and one of the greatest heroines of Croatian and Hungarian history. She was the daughter of Petar Zrinski, Ban of Croatia, and the wife of Francis Rákóczi I and Imre Thököly, as well as the mother of Francis Rákóczi II
1712 Louis Dauphin of France Duke of Burgundy the eldest son of Louis, Dauphin of France. Until he became the official Dauphin of France upon his father's death in 1711, he was known as Le Petit Dauphin to distinguish him from his father, who was known as le Grand Dauphin
1718 Peter Anthony Motteux an English author, playwright, and translator. Motteux was a significant figure in the evolution of English journalism in his era, as the publisher and editor of The Gentleman's Journal, "the first English magazine," from 1692 to 1694
1726 Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski a Polish noble , military leader.
1726 Jacques Carrey a French painter and draughtsman, now remembered almost exclusively for the series of drawings he made of the Parthenon, Athens, in 1674.
1732 Balthasar Permoser among the leading sculptors of his generation, whose evolving working styles spanned the late Baroque and early Rococo.
1743 Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici the last scion of the House of Medici. A patron of the arts, she bequeathed the Medici's large art collection, including the contents of the Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti and the Medicean villas, which she inherited upon her brother Gian Gastone's death in 1737, and her Palatine treasures to the Tuscan state, on the condition that no part of it could be removed from "the Capital of the grand ducal State.... the succession of His Serene Grand Duke."
1745 Nicola Fago an Italian Baroque composer and teacher. He was the father of Lorenzo Fago
1748 Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun an Austrian Generalfeldmarschall. The current spelling of the name, and the spelling used in his time, is mostly Abensperg
1750 Georg Bernhard Bilfinger born at Cannstatt in the Duchy of Württemberg.
1751 Giuseppe Matteo Alberti an Italian Baroque composer and violinist.
1772 Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff the son of Joachim Engelke von Bernstorff, Chamberlain to the elector of Hanover.
1778 Joseph Marie Terray a Controller-General of Finances during the reign of Louis XV of France, an agent of fiscal reform.
1788 John Whitehurst a clockmaker and scientist, and made significant early contributions to geology. He was an influential member of the Lunar Society
1790 Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg by birth a Duchess of Württemberg and by marriage an Archduchess of Austria.
1792 George Browne (soldier) an Irish soldier of fortune who became full general in the Russian service.
1799 Johann Hedwig a German botanist notable for his studies of mosses , in particular the observation of sexual reproduction in the cryptogams.
1803 Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim a German poet.
1807 Sophie von La Roche a German novelist. She was born in Kaufbeuren and died in Offenbach am Main
1820 Lavinia Fisher reported by some legends to be the first female serial killer in the United States of America. Her origins are unknown; however, Fisher resided in the United States for much of her life. She was married to John Fisher, and both were convicted of murder and robbery. Historians have begun to question the veracity of the traditional legend and some assert she never killed anyone
1827 Antoine Nicolas Duchesne a French botanist known for his keen observation of variation within species, and for demonstrating that species are not immutable, because mutations can occur. "As Duchesne's observations were unaided by knowledge of modern concepts of genetics and molecular biology, his insight was truly remarkable." His particular interests were in strawberries and gourds
1829 Olfert Fischer a Danish officer in the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy. He commanded the Dano-Norwegian fleet against British forces under Lord Nelson during the Battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801
1829 Jan Křtitel Kuchař a Czech organist, mandolinist, harpsichordist, music composer, operatic conductor, and teacher.
1830 Nathaniel Brassey Halhed an English Orientalist and philologist. Halhed was born at Westminster. He was educated at Harrow, where he began his intimacy with Richard Brinsley Sheridan, which continued after he entered Christ Church, Oxford. At Oxford he also made the acquaintance of William Jones, the famous Orientalist, who induced him to study Arabic. Accepting a writership in the service of the East India Company, Halhed went out to India, and here, at the suggestion of Warren Hastings, by whose orders it had been compiled, translated the Hindu legal code from a Persian version of the original Sanskrit. This translation was published in 1776 under the title A Code of Gentoo Laws.In 1778 he published a Bengali grammar, to print which he set up, at Hugli, the first Bengali press in India. It is claimed that he was the first writer to call attention to the philological connection of Sanskrit with Persian, Arabic, Greek and Latin.In 1785 he returned to England, and from 1790–1795 was Member of Parliament for Lymington, Hants. For some time he was a disciple of Richard Brothers, and his unwise speech in parliament in defence of Brothers made it impossible for him to remain in the House of Commons, from which he resigned in 1795. He subsequently obtained a home appointment under the East India Company. He died in London on 18 February 1830. His collection of Oriental manuscripts was purchased by the British Museum, and there is an unfinished translation by him of the Mahabharata in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal