Born on February 19

1461 Domenico Grimani an Italian nobleman, theologian and cardinal. Like most noble churchman of his era Grimani was an ecclesiastical pluralist, holding numerous posts and benefices. Desiderius Erasmus dedicated to Grimani his Musica
1473 Nicolaus Copernicus a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center. The publication of this model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution
1526 Carolus Clusius a Flemish doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.
1532 Jean-Antoine de Baïf a French poet and member of the Pléiade.
1552 Melchior Klesl an Austrian statesman and cardinal of the Roman Catholic church during the time of the Counter-Reformation. Klesl was appointed Bishop of Vienna in 1598 and elevated to cardinal in 1616
1586 Pieter de Carpentier a Dutch, or Flemish, administrator of the Dutch East India Company who served as Governor-General there from 1623 to 1627. The Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia is named after him
1594 Henry Frederick Prince of Wales the elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. His younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English and Scottish thrones
1630 Shivaji an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji, in 1674, carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of an independent Maratha Empire with Raigad as its capital
1660 Friedrich Hoffmann a German physician and chemist.
1671 Charles-Hubert Gervais a French composer of the Baroque era. The son of a valet to King Louis XIV's brother, Monsieur, Gervais was born at the Palais Royal in Paris and probably educated by Monsieur's musical intendants, Jean Granouillet de Sablières and Charles Lalouette. He worked as a musician for the Duc de Chartres, the future regent of France. In 1701, he married Françoise du Vivier. In 1721 he was named sous-maître de musique at the Chapelle royale along with André Campra, Nicolas Bernier and Michel Richard Delalande. Gervais composed sacred music and operas, including two tragédies en musique
1717 David Garrick an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. He appeared in a number of amateur theatricals, and with his appearance in the title role of Shakespeare's Richard III audiences and managers began to take notice
1722 Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche a French author.
1732 Richard Cumberland (dramatist) See also Cumberland , Cumberland.
1733 Daniel Solander a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil
1741 Gottlieb Stephanie an Austrian playwright, director and librettist, most famously to Mozart. Stephanie was born in Breslau, Prussia, but came to Vienna during the Seven Years' War as a Prussian prisoner of war. He was appointed to head the National Singspiel, a favourite project of Emperor Joseph He died in Vienna, aged 58
1743 Luigi Boccherini an Italian classical era composer and cellist whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. Boccherini is most widely known for one particular minuet from his String Quintet in E, 11, 5 , and the Cello Concerto in B flat major. The latter work was long known in the heavily altered version by German cellist and prolific arranger Friedrich Grützmacher, but has recently been restored to its original version. Boccherini composed several guitar quintets including the "Fandango" which was influenced by Spanish music. His biographer Elisabeth Le Guin noted among Boccherini's musical qualities "an astonishing repetitiveness, an affection for extended passages with fascinating textures but virtually no melodic line, an obsession with soft dynamics, a unique ear for sonority, and an unusually rich palette of introverted and mournful affects."
1747 Heinrich Leopold Wagner a German dramatist.
1754 Matteo Babini a leading Italian tenor of the late 18th-century, and a teacher of singing and stage art.
1754 Vincenzo Monti an Italian poet, playwright, translator, and scholar.
1761 Antoine Jacques Claude Joseph comte Boulay de la Meurthe a French politician and magistrate, son of an agricultural labourer, born at Chamousey.
1778 Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn a famous cavalry general in the Austrian and Russian armies during the Napoleonic Wars.
1780 Richard McCarty (U.S. politician) an American politician from New York.
1780 Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen a German philologist, chiefly distinguished for his researches in Old German literature.
1783 Alexander Sauerweid a Baltic German painter who taught battle painting at the Russian Imperial Academy of Arts.
1789 José Fernández Madrid a Neogranadine statesman, physician, scientist and writer, who was President of the interim triumvirate of the United Provinces of New Granada in 1814, and President of the United Provinces of the New Granada in 1816. After the Spanish retook New Granada, he was barred from the country and was exiled in Havana, where he continued his scientific studies and worked as a doctor. He was later pardoned and allowed to come back to Colombia, and was appointed ambassador to France and to the United Kingdom where he died in 1830
1791 Concepción Argüello an Alta Californian noted for her romance with Nikolai Rezanov, a Russian promoter of the colonization of Alaska and California.
1793 Sidney Rigdon a leader during the early history of the Latter Day Saint movement.
1798 Allan MacNab a Canadian political leader and Premier of the Province of Canada before Canadian Confederation.
1799 Ferdinand Reich a German chemist who co-discovered indium in 1863 with Hieronymous Theodor Richter.
1800 Émilie Gamelin a French Canadian social worker and Roman Catholic Religious Sister. She is best known as the founder of the Sisters of Providence of Montreal. In 2001 she was beatified by Pope John Paul II
1802 Wilhelm Matthias Naeff a Swiss politician and one of the seven initial members of the Swiss Federal Council.
1803 Tanneguy Duchâtel a French politician. He was Minister of the Interior in the Cabinet of François-Pierre Guizot , losing office in the February Revolution
1804 Carl von Rokitansky a Bohemian physician, pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician.
1804 David Wark a prominent Canadian Senator who served nearly 38 years in office.
1811 Jules Sandeau a French novelist.
1811 Andreas Müller (painter) a German historical painter.
1811 William Hamilton 11th Duke of Hamilton a Scottish nobleman and the Premier Peer of Scotland.
1812 Zygmunt Krasiński the trio of great Romantic poets who influenced national consciousness during the period of Poland's political bondage. He was the most famous member of the aristocratic Krasiński family
1812 Andrew Dickson Murray a Scottish lawyer, botanist, zoologist and entomologist. Murray studied insects which caused crop damage, specialising in the Coleoptera. In botany, he specialised in the Coniferae, in particular the Pacific rim conifer species
1817 William III of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866
1821 Francis Preston Blair Jr. an American politician and Union Army general during the American Civil War. He represented Missouri in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, and he was the Democratic Party's nominee for Vice President in 1868
1821 August Schleicher a German linguist. His great work was A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages, in which he attempted to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language. To show how Indo-European might have looked he created a short tale, Schleicher's fable, to exemplify the reconstructed vocabulary and aspects of Indo-European society inferred from it
1833 Élie Ducommun a peace activist. He is a winner of the 1902 Nobel Peace Prize, which he shared with Charles Albert Gobat
1841 Elfrida Andrée a Swedish organist, composer, and conductor.
1843 Adelina Patti a highly acclaimed 19th-century opera singer, earning huge fees at the height of her career in the music capitals of Europe and America. She first sang in public as a child in 1851 and gave her last performance before an audience in 1914. Along with her near contemporaries Jenny Lind and Thérèse Tietjens, Patti remains one of the most famous sopranos in history, owing to the purity and beauty of her lyrical voice and the unmatched quality of her bel canto technique
1846 Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau a noted French Orientalist and archaeologist.
1847 Rudolf Ulrich Krönlein a Swiss surgeon who was a native of Stein am Rhein.
1849 Hans Dahl None
1849 Giovanni Passannante an Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate king Umberto I of Italy, the first attempt against Savoy monarchy since its origins. Originally condemned to death, his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. The conditions of his imprisonment drove him insane and have been denounced as inhumane
1850 Richard M. Brewer an American cowboy and Lincoln County, New Mexico, lawman. He was the founding leader of the Regulators, a deputized posse who fought in the Lincoln County War