Born on February 22

1040 Rashi a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Tanakh. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise and lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginning students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study. His commentary on the Talmud, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud , has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing by Daniel Bomberg in the 1520s. His commentary on Tanach — especially on the Chumash — is an indispensable aid to students of all levels. The latter commentary alone serves as the basis for more than 300 "supercommentaries" which analyze Rashi's choice of language and citations, penned by some of the greatest names in rabbinic literature
1071 Arnulf III Count of Flanders a.k.a Arnulf 'the unlucky' became Count of Flanders as a minor in 1070 and until his death in 1071.
1169 Shirkuh a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin. His military and diplomatic efforts in Egypt were a key factor in establishing the Ayyubid family in that country
1303 Gegeen Khan Emperor Yingzong of Yuan regarded as the ninth Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia. His name means "enlightened/bright khan" in the Mongolian language
1403 Charles VII of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death, although his legitimacy was initially contested by Henry VI of England.
1440 Ladislaus the Posthumous Duke of Austria from 1440, King of Hungary from 1444 and King of Bohemia from 1453.
1455 Johann Reuchlin a German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, whose work also took him to modern-day France, Austria, Switzerland, Italy. Most of Reuchlin's career was around advancing German knowledge of Greek and Hebrew
1500 Rodolfo Pio da Carpi an Italian Cardinal, humanist and patron of the arts. He formed a great library and was at the center of humanist studies in 16th-century Rome, though serving on the Roman Inquisition. He was a trusted advisor to Pope Pius III and helped to establish the Inquisition at Milan
1514 Tahmasp I an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I
1520 Moses Isserles also well known for his Darkhei Moshe commentary on the Tur. Isserles is also referred to as the Rema, , the Hebrew acronym for Rabbi Moses Isserles
1601 Pierre Chanut a civil servant in the Auvergne, a French ambassador and state counsellor.
1612 George Digby 2nd Earl of Bristol an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the House of Lords. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War but his ambition and instability of character caused serious problems to himself and the Kings he served
1645 Johann Christoph Bach (1645–93) a German musician of the Baroque period.
1649 Bon Boullogne a French painter.
1679 Richard Lestock an officer in the Royal Navy, eventually rising to the rank of Admiral. He fought in a number of battles, and was a controversial figure, most remembered for his part in the defeat at the Battle of Toulon, and the subsequent court-martial
1705 Peter Artedi known as the "father of Ichthyology.".
1714 Louis-Georges de Bréquigny born at Granville, Manche in Normandy.
1728 Alexander Gerard a Scottish minister, academic and philosophical writer.
1730 Domenico Merlini an Italian-Polish architect whose work was mostly in the classical style.
1732 George Washington the first President of the United States , the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land
1735 Charles Lennox 3rd Duke of Richmond a British politician and British Army officer. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary for a brief period. He was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and then in the ministry of William Pitt
1737 Friedrich Adolf Count von Kalckreuth a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.
1740 Valentin Adamberger a German operatic tenor. His voice was universally admired for its pliancy, agility, and precision, and several composers of note, such as Mozart, wrote music specifically for him
1745 Jean-Antoine Roucher a French poet.
1749 Johann Nikolaus Forkel a German musician, musicologist and music theorist.
1756 Georg Friedrich von Martens a German jurist and diplomat. Educated at the universities of Göttingen, Regensburg and Vienna, he became professor of jurisprudence at Göttingen in 1783 and was ennobled in 1789. He was made a counsellor of state by the elector of Hanover in 1808, and in 1810 was president of the financial section of the council of state of the kingdom of Westphalia. In 1814 he was appointed privy cabinet-councillor by the king of Hanover, and in 1816 went as representative of the king to the diet of the new German Confederation at Frankfort
1761 Erik Tulindberg the first known Finnish composer of classical music.
1771 Vincenzo Camuccini an Italian painter of Neoclassic histories and religious paintings. He was considered the premier academic painter of his time in Rome
1778 Rembrandt Peale an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism after a stay in Paris in his early thirties
1784 John Eatton Le Conte an American naturalist. He was born near Shrewsbury, New Jersey, the son of John Eatton Le Conte and Jane Sloane Le Conte. He graduated from Columbia College, where he showed an interest in science and was taught natural history by David Hosack, founder of Elgin Botanical Garden
1785 Jean Charles Athanase Peltier a French physicist. He was originally a watch dealer, but at 30 years old took up experiments and observations in the field of physics
1786 Harriette Wilson a celebrated British Regency courtesan, whose clients included the Prince of Wales, the Lord Chancellor and four future Prime Ministers.
1788 Arthur Schopenhauer driven by a continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction. Influenced by Eastern philosophy, he maintained that the "truth was recognized by the sages of India"; consequently, his solutions to suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers. The influence of "transcendental ideality" led him to choose atheism
1792 Roderick Murchison a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
1793 Friedrich Harkort an early prominent German industrialist and pioneer of industrial development in the Ruhr region.
1793 Isaak Markus Jost a Jewish historical writer.
1796 Adolphe Quetelet a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist. He founded and directed the Brussels Observatory and was influential in introducing statistical methods to the social sciences. His name is sometimes spelled with an accent as Quételet
1796 Alexis Bachelot a Roman Catholic priest best known for his tenure as the first Prefect Apostolic of the Sandwich Islands. In that role, he led the first permanent Catholic mission to the Kingdom of Hawaii. Bachelot was raised in France, where he attended the Irish College in Paris, and was ordained a priest in 1820. He led the first Catholic mission to Hawaii, arriving in 1827. Although he had expected the approval of then Hawaiian King Kamehameha II, he learned upon arrival that Kamehameha II had died and a new government that was hostile towards Catholic missionaries had been installed. Bachelot, however, was able to convert a small group of Hawaiians and quietly minister to them for four years before being deported in 1831 on the orders of Kaʻahumanu, the Kuhina Nui of Hawaii
1801 Marc Girardin a French politician and man of letters, whose real name was Marc Girardin.
1801 William Barnes an English writer, poet, Church of England minister, and philologist. He wrote over 800 poems, some in Dorset dialect, and much other work, including a comprehensive English grammar quoting from more than 70 different languages
1805 Sarah Fuller Flower Adams an English poet.
1806 Levko Borovykovsky a romantic poet, writer, translator, and folklorist. After graduating in 1830 from Kharkiv University, Borovykovsky taught in a Kursk gymnasium and from 1839 in the Poltava Institute for Daughters of the Nobility. In 1852 he became a gymnasium inspector in Poltava gubernia and retired a few years later. His works were first published in 1828, and he was one of the first poets of the Kharkiv Romantic School. Of his numerous poems, the most notable is the ballad "Marusia" , a free reworking of Vasilii Zhukovsky's "Svetlana." During his lifetime only one collection of his writings was published, Baiky i prybaiutky , which brought him recognition as a storyteller. He also translated the poetry of Horace, Aleksandr Pushkin, and Adam Mickiewicz, compiled a Ukrainian dictionary, and collected Ukrainian folklore. Borovykovsky's collected works—Tvory and Povne zibrannia tvoriv —were published in Kyiv
1806 Józef Kremer a Polish historian of art, a philosopher, an aesthetician and a psychologist.
1806 Antoine Wiertz a Belgian romantic painter and sculptor.
1809 Karl Heinzen a revolutionary author who resided mainly in Germany and the United States. He was one of the German Forty-Eighters
1810 Grigore Alexandrescu a nineteenth-century Romanian poet and translator noted for his fables with political undertones.
1814 Oskar Kolberg a Polish ethnographer, folklorist, and composer active during the foreign Partitions of Poland.
1814 Friedrich Ludwig Knapp a German chemist.
1817 Niels Gade a Danish composer, conductor, violinist, organist and teacher. He is considered the most important Danish musician of his day
1817 Carl Wilhelm Borchardt a German mathematician.