February 3 events in history

1112 Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry, uniting the fortunes of those two states
1377 More than 2,000 people of the Italian city of Cesena are slaughtered by Papal Troops (Cesena Bloodbath)
1451 Sultan Mehmed II inherits the throne of the Ottoman Empire
1488 Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, becoming the first known European to travel so far south
1509 The Portuguese navy defeats a joint fleet of the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice, the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut, and the Republic of Ragusa at the Battle of Diu in Diu, India
1534 Irish rebel Silken Thomas is executed by the order of Henry VIII in London, England
1637 Tulip mania collapses in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) as sellers could no longer find buyers for their bulb contracts
1690 The colony of Massachusetts issues the first paper money in the Americas
1706 During the Battle of Fraustadt Swedish forces defeat a superior Saxon-Polish-Russian force by deploying a double envelopment
1781 American Revolutionary War: British forces seize the Dutch-owned Caribbean island Sint Eustatius
1783 American Revolutionary War: Spain recognizes United States independence
1787 Militia led by General Benjamin Lincoln crush the remnants of Shays' Rebellion in Petersham, Massachusetts
1807 A British military force, under Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty captures the Spanish Empire city of Montevideo, now the capital of Uruguay
1809 The Territory of Illinois is created by the 10th United States Congress
1813 José de San Martín defeats a Spanish royalist army at the Battle of San Lorenzo, part of the Argentine War of Independence
1825 Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula that formed westernmost Denmark, becomes an island after a flood drowns its 1 km wide isthmus
1830 The sovereignty of Greece is confirmed in a London Protocol
1834 Wake Forest University is established
1852 Justo José de Urquiza defeats Juan Manuel de Rosas at the Battle of Caseros
1870 The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing voting rights to citizens regardless of race
1897 The Greco-Turkish War breaks out
1900 Governor of Kentucky William Goebel dies of wound sustained in an assassination attempt three days earlier in Frankfort, Kentucky
1913 The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect an income tax
1916 Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada burn down
1917 World War I: The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany a day after the latter announced a new policy of unrestricted submarine warfare
1918 The Twin Peaks Tunnel in San Francisco, California begins service as the longest streetcar tunnel in the world at 11,920 feet (3,633 meters) long
1931 The Hawke's Bay earthquake, New Zealand's worst natural disaster, kills 258
1943 The USAT Dorchester is sunk by a German U-boat. Only 230 of 902 men aboard survived. The Chapel of the Four Chaplains, dedicated by President Harry Truman, is one of many memorials established to commemorate the Four Chaplains story
1944 World War II: During the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, U.S. Army and Marine forces seize Kwajalein Atoll from the defending Japanese garrison
1945 World War II: The United States and the Philippine Commonwealth begin a month-long battle to retake Manila from Japan
1945 World War II: As part of Operation Thunderclap, 1,000 B-17s of the Eighth Air Force bomb Berlin, a raid which kills between 2,500 to 3,000 and dehouses another 120,000
1947 The lowest temperature in North America is recorded in Snag, Yukon
1957 Senegalese political party Democratic Rally merges into the Senegalese Party of Socialist Action (PSAS)
1958 Founding of the Benelux Economic Union, creating a testing ground for a later European Economic Community
1959 Deaths of rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson, in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa
1960 British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan speaks of "a wind of change", an increasing national consciousness blowing through colonial Africa, signalling that his Government is likely to support decolonisation
1961 A protest by agricultural workers in Baixa de Cassanje, Portuguese Angola, turns into a revolt, opening the Angolan War of Independence, the first of the Portuguese Colonial Wars
1961 The United States Air Forces begins Operation Looking Glass, and over the next 30 years, a "Doomsday Plane" is always in the air, with the capability of taking direct control of the United States' bombers and missiles in the event of the destruction of the SAC's command post
1966 The unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft makes the first controlled rocket-assisted landing on the Moon
1967 Ronald Ryan, the last person to be executed in Australia, is hanged in Pentridge Prison, Melbourne
1969 In Cairo, Yasser Arafat is appointed Palestine Liberation Organization leader at the Palestinian National Congress
1971 New York Police Officer Frank Serpico is shot during a drug bust in Brooklyn and survives to later testify against police corruption. Many believe the incident proves that NYPD officers tried to kill him
1972 The first day of the seven-day 1972 Iran blizzard, which would kill at least 4,000 people, making it the deadliest snowstorm in history
1984 Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B is launched using Space Shuttle Challenger
1984 John Buster and the research team at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center announce history's first embryo transfer, from one woman to another resulting in a live birth
1989 A military coup overthrows Alfredo Stroessner, dictator of Paraguay since 1954
1989 After a stroke two weeks previously, South African President P. W. Botha resigns as leader of the National Party, but stays on as president for six more months
1995 Astronaut Eileen Collins becomes the first woman to pilot the Space Shuttle as mission STS-63 gets underway from Kennedy Space Center in Florida
1998 Karla Faye Tucker is executed in Texas, becoming the first woman executed in the United States since 1984
1998 Cavalese cable car disaster: a United States Military pilot causes the death of 20 people when his low-flying plane cuts the cable of a cable-car near Trento, Italy