Born on February 5

1505 Aegidius Tschudi an eminent member of the Tschudi family, of Glarus, Switzerland. His best known work is the Chronicon Helveticum, a history of the early Swiss Confederation
1519 René of Chalon a Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre.
1534 Giovanni de' Bardi an Italian literary critic, writer, composer and soldier.
1589 Esteban Manuel de Villegas a 17th-century Spanish poet.
1589 Honorat de Bueil seigneur de Racan a French aristocrat, soldier, poet, dramatist and member of the Académie française.
1594 Biagio Marini an Italian virtuoso violinist and composer of the first half of the seventeenth century.
1608 Gaspar Schott a German Jesuit and scientist, specializing in the fields of physics, mathematics and natural philosophy, and known for his industry.
1626 Marie de Rabutin-Chantal marquise de Sévigné a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. Most of her letters, celebrated for their wit and vividness, were addressed to her daughter. She is revered in France as one of the great icons of French literature
1650 Anne Jules de Noailles one of the chief generals of France towards the end of the reign of Louis XIV, and, after raising the regiment of Noailles in 1689, he commanded in Spain during both the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession, and was made marshal of France in 1693.
1688 Maurice Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
1690 Johann Daniel Schumacher the secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences and director of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Empire.
1697 William Smellie (obstetrician) a Scottish obstetrician.
1703 Gilbert Tennent a religious leader, born in County Armagh, Ireland. Gilbert was one of the leaders of the Great Awakening of religious feeling in Colonial America, along with Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. His most famous sermon, "On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry" compared anti-revivalistic ministers to the Pharisees described in the gospels
1704 Anne Christine of Sulzbach Princess of Piedmont a princess of the Bavarian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire and first wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She died during childbirth at the age of 19
1714 Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch a German physician and botanist known for pioneer investigations of plant sexuality and reproduction.
1715 Baltazar Adam Krčelić a Croatian historian, theologian and lawyer.
1723 John Witherspoon a Scots Presbyterian minister and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey. As president of the College of New Jersey , he trained many leaders of the early nation and was an active clergyman and the only college president to sign the Declaration
1725 James Otis Jr. a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position
1732 Charles Lee (general) served as a General of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. Lee also served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War. After the war he sold his commission and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus In 1773 Lee, who had Whig views, moved to America and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting broke out in the American War of Independence in 1775 he volunteered to serve with rebel forces. Lee's ambitions to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army were thwarted by the appointment of George Washington
1735 Paul Kray a soldier, and general in Habsburg service during the Seven Years War, the War of Bavarian Succession, the Austro–Turkish War , and the French Revolutionary Wars. He was born in Késmárk, Upper Hungary
1745 John Jeffries a Boston physician, scientist, and a military surgeon with the British Army in Nova Scotia and New York during the American Revolution. Born in Boston, Jeffries graduated from Harvard College and obtained his medical degree at the University of Aberdeen. He is best known for accompanying Jean-Pierre Blanchard on his 1785 balloon flight across the English Channel. Jeffries also played a large role in the trial for the Boston Massacre as a witness for the defense. He was the surgeon for Patrick Carr, who was one of the Americans shot during that incident
1748 Elias Stein (chess player) a Dutch chess master.
1748 Christian Gottlob Neefe a German opera composer and conductor.
1768 Robert Stopford (Royal Navy officer) a distinguished officer in the Royal Navy whose career spanned over 60 years, from the French Revolutionary Wars to the Syrian War.
1770 Alexandre Brongniart a French chemist, mineralogist, and zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on a study of the geology of the region around Paris. He was the son of the architect Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart and father of the botanist Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart
1778 Jan Nepomucen Umiński a Polish military officer and a brigadier general of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw. A veteran of the Kościuszko Uprising, Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising, he died in exile in Wiesbaden
1784 Nancy Lincoln best known as the mother of United States President Abraham Lincoln. Her marriage to Thomas Lincoln also produced a daughter, Sarah Lincoln. When Nancy and Thomas had been married for just over 10 years, the family moved from Kentucky to Spencer County, Indiana. Nancy Lincoln died from milk sickness at the Little Pigeon Creek settlement in Spencer County when Abraham was nine years old
1785 Lev Naryshkin a Russian aristocrat who fought in the Napoleonic Wars.
1788 Károly Kisfaludy a Hungarian dramatist and artist, brother of Sándor Kisfaludy. He was the founder of the national drama
1788 Robert Peel a British Conservative statesman, who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846. The son of a wealthy textile manufacturer, he served in many top offices over four decades. While serving as Home Secretary, Peel reformed and liberalised the criminal law, and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". He cut tariffs to stimulate business; to replace the lost revenue he pushed through a 3% income tax. He played a central role in making Free Trade a reality and set up a modern banking system. Initially a supporter of legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel eventually supported the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger". Peel has been criticised for his handling of the Irish famine. In 1834, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto, laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based. Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, then reversed himself and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation. This happened with the Test Act , Catholic Emancipation , the Reform Act of 1832, the income tax and most notably the repeal of the Corn Laws. Therefore many critics said he was a traitor to the Tory cause, or "a Liberal wolf in sheep's clothing" because his final position reflected liberal ideas. Historian A.J.P. Taylor says:
1795 Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger has been born in Vienna on 5 February 1795. His father, Karl Haidinger was a mineralogist and geologist employed from 1780 onwards at the "Kaiserlich-Königliches Naturalien Cabinet". One of the collections of the Cabinet consisted of a multitude of rocks and minerals; in 1782 Karl Haidinger published a book on that part of the collection. Apart from classification activities Karl Haidinger engaged in scientific research on for example the metallurgical amalgamation process and taught its application to mining engineers in Schemnitz, now known as Banská Štiavnica in Slovakia. Several papers from his hand were published in Ignaz Edler von Born's science magazine "Physikalische Arbeiten der einträchtigen Freunde in Wien" and in the "Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien". One of Karl Haidinger's papers entitled "Entwurf einer systematischen Eintheilung der Gebirgsarten" won a first price in the 1785 competition organized by the Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts of Petersburg, Russia, and was published separately as a book
1797 Jean-Marie Duhamel a French mathematician and physicist. His studies were affected by the troubles of the Napoleonic era. He went on to form his own school École Sainte-Barbe. Duhamel's principle, a method of obtaining solutions to inhomogeneous linear evolution equations, is named after him. He was primarily a mathematician but did studies on the mathematics of heat, mechanics, and acoustics. He also did work in calculus using infinitesimals. Duhamel's theorem for infinitesimals says that the sum of a series of infinitesimals is unchanged by replacing the infinitesimal with its principal part
1799 John Lindley an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.
1804 Johan Ludvig Runeberg the national poet of Finland. He wrote in the Swedish language
1806 Robert Montgomery Bird an American novelist, playwright, and physician.
1808 Carl Spitzweg a German romanticist painter and poet. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era
1810 Ole Bull a Norwegian violinist and composer.
1810 John Muir (indologist) a Scottish Sanskrit scholar and Indologist.
1811 William Henry Harvey an Irish botanist who specialised in algae.
1811 Thomas Creswick an English landscape painter and illustrator, and one of the best-known members of the Birmingham School of landscape painters.
1812 Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès a French military officer and politician. Despite his later career as a senator under the Second French Empire, d'Anthès's name is most famous because he killed Alexander Pushkin, the great Russian poet as well as his own wife's brother-in-law, in a duel
1814 David T. Ansted an English geologist and author.
1818 Henry Litolff a piano virtuoso, composer of Romantic music and music publisher. He became a prolific composer, although he is now known mainly as the founder of the Litolff Edition of classical and modern music. He died at Bois-Colombes near Paris
1824 Alfonso Capecelatro an Italian Archbishop of Capua, ecclesiastical writer, Vatican librarian, and Cardinal.
1827 Peter Lalor an activist turned politician who rose to fame for his leading role in the Eureka Rebellion, an event controversially identified with the "birth of democracy" in Australasia. He is famous for being the only outlaw to make it to parliament
1835 Friedrich August Theodor Winnecke a German astronomer.
1836 Nikolay Dobrolyubov a Russian literary critic, journalist, poet and revolutionary democrat.
1837 Dwight L. Moody Lyman Moody , also known as D.L. Moody, was an American evangelist and publisher, who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts , the Moody Bible Institute, and Moody Publishers
1840 Hiram Maxim an American inventor who moved to the United Kingdom at the age of 41. He remained an American citizen until he became a naturalized British subject in 1900. He was the inventor of the Maxim Gun – the first portable, fully automatic machine gun – and held patents on mechanical devices such as a mousetrap, hair-curling irons, and steam pumps. He laid claim to inventing the lightbulb, and even experimented with powered flight, but his large aircraft designs were never successful. However, his "Captive Flying Machine" amusement ride, designed as a means by which to fund his research while generating public interest in flight, was highly successful
1840 John Boyd Dunlop a British inventor. He was one of the founders of the rubber company that bore his name, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company