Born on February 7

260 Qin Shi Huang the King of the state of Qin who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the Shang and Zhou rulers, he ruled as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty from 220 to 210 The title emperor would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.
572 Prince Shōtoku a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko. He was a son of Emperor Yōmei and his younger half-sister Princess Anahobe no Hashihito. His parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan, and was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe Clan. The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki
1102 Empress Matilda the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in Peter's Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when he died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies
1165 Stephen of Armenia the Marshal of Armenia, the son of Leo I, Prince of Armenia and Beatrice de Rethel.
1431 Photius Metropolitan of Moscow Kiev , Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus', Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia, of Greek descent.
1478 Thomas More an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. He was an important councillor to Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor from October 1529 to 16 May 1532. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale. More also wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal and imaginary island nation. More later opposed the King's separation from the Catholic Church and refused to accept him as Supreme Head of the Church of England because it denied papal authority and he also opposed Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn. Tried for treason, More was convicted, likely due to perjured testimony, and beheaded
1514 Adam of Łowicz a professor of medicine at the University of Krakow, its rector in 1510–1511, a humanist, writer and philosopher.
1559 Catherine de Bourbon the daughter of Queen Joan III and King Anthony of Navarre.
1612 Thomas Killigrew an English dramatist and theatre manager. He was a witty, dissolute figure at the court of King Charles II of England
1622 Vittoria della Rovere Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Duke Ferdinando She gave her husband four children, two of which would survive infancy; the future Cosimo III, Tuscany's longest reigning monarch and Francesco Maria, a prince of the Church. At the death of her grandfather Francesco Maria della Rovere she inherited the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro which reverted to her second son, Francesco Maria, at her death. She was later entrusted with the care of her three grandchildren. Her marriage brought in a wealth of treasures into the House of Medici which can today be seen in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence
1655 Jean-François Regnard equally famous now for the travel diary he kept of a voyage in 1681.
1693 Anna of Russia reigned as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Prior to her accession to the Russian throne, she was the regent of the Duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730
1709 Charles de Brosses a French writer of the 18th century.
1741 Henry Fuseli a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain. Many of his works, such as The Nightmare deal with supernatural subject-matter. He painted works for John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, and created his own "Milton Gallery". He held the posts of Professor of Painting and Keeper at the Royal Academy. His style had a considerable influence on many younger British artists, including William Blake
1758 Benedikt Schack a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute.
1766 Frederick North 5th Earl of Guilford a British politician and colonial administrator.
1766 Joseph Franz von Jacquin an Austrian scientist who studied medicine, chemistry zoology and botany.
1768 Antoine-Athanase Royer-Collard a French physician who was born in the village of Sompuis, département Marne. He was a younger brother to philosopher Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard
1787 Jacob Bigelow an American physician and botanist. He was architect of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the father of physician Henry Jacob Bigelow
1789 Joakim Frederik Schouw a Danish lawyer, botanist and politician. From 1821, professor in botany at the University of Copenhagen — first extraordinary professor, but after the death of J.W. Hornemann in 1841 ordinary. His main scientific field was the new discipline of phytogeography
1795 Anders Fryxell a Swedish historian.
1801 Wilhem de Haan a Dutch zoologist. He specialised in the study of insects and crustaceans, and was the first keeper of invertebrates at the Rijksmuseum in Leiden, now Naturalis. He was forced to retire in 1846, when he was partially paralysed by a spinal disease. He was responsible for the invertebrate volume of Siebold's Fauna Japonica, which was published in 1833, and introduced the western world for the first time to Japanese wildlife. He named a great many new taxa, and several taxa are named in his honour
1804 John Deere (inventor) an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company, one of the largest and leading agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world. Born in Rutland, Vermont, Deere moved to Illinois and invented the first commercially successful steel plow in 1837
1804 Mykola Markevych a Ukrainian musician, composer, historian, ethnographer, and poet.
1806 Charles Fenno Hoffman an American author, poet and editor associated with the Knickerbocker Group in New York.
1807 August Wilhelm Knobel a German theologian born near Sorau, Niederlausitz.
1809 Matija Majar a Carinthian Slovene Roman Catholic priest and political activist, best known as the creator of the idea of a United Slovenia.
1812 Charles Dickens an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's most well-known fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period. During his life, his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity, and by the twentieth century he was widely seen as a literary genius by critics and scholars. His novels and short stories continue to be widely popular
1812 Ivane Bagration of Mukhrani a Georgian nobleman of the House of Mukhrani, and general in the Imperial Russian service. He was one of the biggest Georgian landowners of that time and a modernizer of winemaking industry
1816 Jean Frédéric Frenet a French mathematician, astronomer, and meteorologist. He was born and died in Périgueux, France
1817 Ágoston Trefort a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Religion and Education from 1872 until his death. He was the President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1885
1823 Richard Genée a Prussian born Austrian librettist, playwright, and composer.
1824 William Huggins an English astronomer best known for his pioneering work in astronomical spectroscopy together with his wife Margaret Lindsay Huggins.
1825 Karl Möbius a German zoologist who was a pioneer in the field of ecology and a former director of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.
1825 Karl Kořistka a Czech geographer and technologist.
1828 Adolphe Perraud a French Cardinal and academician.
1833 Ricardo Palma a Peruvian author, scholar, librarian and politician. His magnum opus is the Tradiciones peruanas
1833 Jacob Mendes Da Costa an American physician.
1834 William Bury Westall an English novelist born in Old Accrington, Lancashire, England.
1836 Josep Tapiró Baró a Catalan painter. One of his closest friends was the painter Marià Fortuny with whom he shared an interest for Orientalism. He was a master of watercolor painting
1837 James Murray (lexicographer) a Scottish lexicographer and philologist. He was the primary editor of the Oxford English Dictionary from 1879 until his death
1839 Élie-Miriam Delaborde a French pianist and composer. He was also renowned as a player of the pedal piano
1840 Charles Warren an officer in the British Royal Engineers. He was one of the earliest European archaeologists of Biblical Holy Land, and particularly of Temple Mount. Much of his military service was spent in the British South Africa, but in earlier life he was Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police, from 1886 to 1888, during the period of the Jack the Ripper murders. His command in combat during the Second Boer War was criticised, but he achieved considerable success during his long life in his military and civil posts
1842 Alexandre Ribot a French politician, four times Prime Minister.
1844 Alexei Fedchenko a Russian naturalist and explorer well known for his travels in central Asia. Alternative transliterations of his name, used in languages such as German, include "Aleksei Pavlovich Fedtschenko" and "Alexei Pawlowitsch Fedtschenko"
1844 Nikolai Danielson a Russian economist and sociologist.
1845 Louis Alexander Fagan an Anglo-Italian writer. He worked in the Department of Prints and Drawings for the British Museum from 1869 to 1894
1849 William Hurrell Mallock an English novelist and economics writer.
1852 Niko Lomouri a Georgian writer and educator.
1856 Emanuel Felke a naturopath who developed the eponymous Felke cure, and who was active in Repelen near Moers from 1896 to 1914 and in Bad Sobernheim from 1915 to 1925. He also practiced iris diagnosis and is considered the co-father of combination homeopathic remedies