Born on January 1

512 Saint Maurus O.S.B. was the first disciple of Benedict of Nursia. He is mentioned in Gregory the Great's biography of the latter as the first oblate; offered to the monastery by his noble Roman parents as a young boy to be brought up in the monastic life. Four stories involving Maurus recounted by Gregory formed a pattern for the ideal formation of a Benedictine monk. The most famous of these involved Maurus's rescue of Saint Placidus, a younger boy offered to Benedict at the same time as Maurus. The incident has been reproduced in many medieval and Renaissance paintings
766 Ali al-Ridha the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to the Twelver Shia sect of Islam as well as an Imam of knowledge according to the Zaydi Shia school and Sufis. His given name was 'Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja'far
870 Zwentibold the illegitimate son of the Carolingian Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia. In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death. After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church
1424 Louis IV Elector Palatine an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1436 - 1449.
1431 Pope Alexander VI Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, because he broke the priestly vow of celibacy and had several legitimately acknowledged children. Therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. Two of Alexander's successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Peter
1449 Lorenzo de' Medici an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. He is perhaps best known for his contribution to the art world, sponsoring artists such as Botticelli and Michelangelo. His life coincided with the mature phase of Italian Renaissance and his death coincided with the end of the Golden Age of Florence. The fragile peace he helped maintain between the various Italian states collapsed with his death. Lorenzo de' Medici is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence
1467 Sigismund I the Old of Poland , of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. Earlier, Sigismund had been invested as Duke of Silesia. A successful monarch and a great patron of arts, he established Polish suzerainty over Ducal Prussia and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state, securing the nation's wealth, culture and power
1484 Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of Renaissance humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus
1504 Caspar Creuziger a German humanist. He was professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg, preacher at the Castle Church , secretary to and worked with Martin Luther to revise Luther's German Bible translation
1507 Anna of Brandenburg Duchess of Mecklenburg a Princess of Brandenburg and by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg.
1511 Henry Duke of Cornwall the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.
1516 Margaret Leijonhufvud Queen of Sweden from 1536 to 1551 as the wife of King Gustav She belonged to the early Leijonhufvud clan of Swedish nobility.
1519 Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas a Spanish politician, diplomat, military officer and colonial official. He was the seventh governor-general of the Philippines from May or June 1, 1590 to October 25, 1593. The city of Dasmariñas, located 24 km south of Manila, was named after him. Dasmariñas was a member of the Order of Santiago
1526 Louis Bertrand (saint) known as the "apostle of the Americas". He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church
1537 Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski Count Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski -Polish nobleman , Leliwa coat of arms. Son of Hetman Jan Tarnowski and Zofia née Szydłowiecka. He was married to Zofia Odrowąż since 1555, but had no issue. He was educated in the worldly affairs at the court of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, at his father's great expense claimed Orzechowski. He was owner of Tarnów, Wiewiórka, Przeworsk, Rożnów and Stare Sioło. Secretary of King Sigismund II Augustus since 1554, held offices of castellan of Wojnicz, starost of Sandomierz, Stryj and Dolina. Poor health disallowed Jan Krzysztof to have a substantial career in the military, Niesiecki said: King was shoving a lesser military command to him during the Muscovy war , but his health weak due to consumption prevented him from achieving knightly deeds.' Died prematurely, most likely to the ravages of tuberculosis, and was buried next to his father, Piotr Skarga presided over his funeral at Tarnów. On his person ended the Tarnów line of the Tarnowski family clan. Poet Jan Kochanowski dedicated his poem Chess to him
1557 Stephen Bocskay a Hungarian Calvinist nobleman, and Prince of Transylvania , who was an eager advocate of the Hungarian interests and became the leader of a revolt against the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor's effort to impose Roman Catholicism on the Kingdom of Hungary, when it was partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy. He established an alliance with the Ottoman Empire and, supported by the hajduks, compelled archduke Matthias to reaffirm and guarantee religious freedom for both Royal Hungary and Transylvania concluded by the Treaty of Vienna. As a recognized patron of Protestant Reformation, his statue can be found on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, Switzerland
1573 Malyuta Skuratov one of the most odious leaders of the Oprichnina during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
1600 Friedrich Spanheim a Calvinistic theology professor at the University of Leiden.
1618 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo a Spanish Baroque painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times
1622 Isaac Sweers a 17th-century Dutch admiral.
1628 Christoph Bernhard born in Kolberg, Pomerania, and died in Dresden. He studied with former Sweelinck-pupil Paul Siefert in Danzig and in Warsaw By the age of 20 he was singing at the electoral court in Dresden under Heinrich Schütz. He then spent a year in Copenhagen to study singing with Agostino Fontana
1638 Emperor Go-Sai the 111th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1638 Nicolas Steno a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology
1638 Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières a French poet born in Paris. She was the daughter of Melchior du Ligier, sieur de la Garde, maitre d'hôtel to the queens Marie de Medici and Anne of Austria
1655 Christian Thomasius a German jurist and philosopher.
1662 Balaji Vishwanath the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Maharashtrian Brahmin family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century. Balaji Vishwanath assisted a young Maratha Emperor Shahu to consolidate his grip on a kingdom that had been racked by civil war and persistent attack by the Mughals under Aurangzeb
1674 Kaikhosro of Kartli a titular king of Kartli, eastern Georgia, from 1709 to 1711. He reigned in absentia since he served during the whole of this period as a Persian commander-in-chief in what is now Afghanistan
1677 François Joseph Lagrange-Chancel a French dramatist and satirist.
1684 Arnold Drakenborch a Dutch classical scholar.
1697 Joseph François Dupleix governor general of the French establishment in India, and the rival of Robert Clive.
1704 Soame Jenyns an English writer.
1709 Johann Heinrich Hartmann Bätz a German-Dutch organ builder.
1711 Baron Franz von der Trenck an Austrian soldier.
1714 Kristijonas Donelaitis a Prussian Lithuanian Lutheran pastor and poet. He lived and worked in Lithuania Minor, a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia, that had a sizable minority of ethnic Lithuanians. He wrote the first classic Lithuanian language poem, The Seasons , which became one of the principal works of Lithuanian poetry. The poem, a classic work of Lithuanian literature, depicts everyday life of Lithuanian peasants, their struggle with serfdom, and the annual cycle of life
1714 Giovanni Battista Mancini an Italian soprano castrato, voice teacher, and author of books on singing.
1735 Paul Revere an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and a patriot in the American Revolution. He is most famous for alerting the Colonial militia to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride"
1741 Johan Adam Pollich a German doctor, botanist and entomologist.
1745 Anthony Wayne a United States Army officer, statesman, and member of the United States House of Representatives. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the sobriquet Mad Anthony. He later served as General in Chief of the Army and commanded the Legion of the United States
1745 Vincent Strambi a Catholic bishop who was a member of the Passionist Congregation. He was canonised by Pope Pius XII in 1950
1750 Frederick Muhlenberg an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. A delegate and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a Lutheran pastor by profession, Muhlenberg was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania
1750 Christoph Haberland considered one of the brightest masters of classicism architecture in Latvian history.
1752 Betsy Ross widely credited with making the first American flag purportedly in 1776, according to family tradition, upon a visit from General George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and changing the shape of the stars described on the flag from six-pointed to easier-to-produce five-pointed stars. However, there is no archival evidence or other verbal traditions that this story or "legend" of the first American flag is true and supposedly the story first surfaced in the early 1870s by the description of her descendents, , a century later with no mention being made or documented anywhere in earlier decades
1754 Vasily Zuyev a Russian naturalist and traveler, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
1760 James Trevenen an officer in the Royal Navy and the Imperial Russian Navy.
1763 Leopold Wilhelm von Dobschütz a Prussian "general of cavalry", the "hero of Dennewitz" and "liberator of Wittenberg", military governor of the Rhine province and of Breslau. He was Gutsherr of Zölling, which his wife had inherited, and the Gütern Ober- and Nieder-Briesnitz as well as Schönbrunn, all in the district Sagan
1766 Antoine-Vincent Arnault a French dramatist.
1767 Heinrich Schrader (botanist) a German botanist and mycologist. He studied medicine early in life. He named the Australian plant genus Hakea in 1797
1768 Maria Edgeworth a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature. She was one of the first realist writers in children's literature and was a significant figure in the evolution of the novel in Europe. She held advanced views, for a woman of her time, on estate management, politics and education, and corresponded with some of the leading literary and economic writers, including Sir Walter Scott and David Ricardo
1771 Georges Cadoudal a French politician, and leader of the Chouannerie during the French Revolution. He was named a Marshal of France in 1814
1774 André Marie Constant Duméril a French zoologist. He was professor of anatomy at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle from 1801 to 1812, when he became professor of herpetology and ichthyology. His son Auguste Duméril was also a zoologist