Died on January 1

138 Lucius Aelius Caesar became the adopted son and intended successor of Roman Emperor Hadrian , but never attained the throne. Aelius was born with the name Lucius Ceionius Commodus, and later called Lucius Aelius Caesar. He is often mistakenly referred to as Lucius Aelius Verus, though this name is not attested outside the Augustan History and probably arose as a manuscript error
404 Saint Telemachus a monk who, according to the Church historian Theodoret, tried to stop a gladiatorial fight in a Roman amphitheatre, and was stoned to death by the crowd. The Christian Emperor Honorius, however, was impressed by the monk's martyrdom and it spurred him to issue a historic ban on gladiatorial fights. The last known gladiatorial fight in Rome was on 1 January 404 AD, so this is usually given as the date of Telemachus' martyrdom
510 Eugendus the fourth abbot of Condat Abbey, at Saint-Claude, Jura. He was born at Izernore
527 Fulgentius of Ruspe bishop of the city of Ruspe, North Africa, in the 5th and 6th century and was canonized as a Christian saint.
680 Javanshir the prince of Caucasian Albania from 637 to 680, hailing from the region of Gardman. His life and deeds were the subject of legends that were recorded in Armenian medieval texts. He was either of Parthian or Persian origin, as the Mihranid family claimed descent from the Sasanian Persians
898 Odo of France a King of Western Francia, reigning from 888 to 898. He was a son of Robert the Strong, count of Anjou, whose branch of the family is known as the Robertians. Odo is also known as the Duke of France and Count of Paris
951 Ramiro II of León a King of León from 931 until his death. Initially titular king only of a lesser part of the kingdom, he gained the crown of León after supplanting his brother Alfonso IV and cousin Alfonso Fróilaz in 931. The scant Anales castellanos primeros are a primary source for his reign
962 Baldwin III Count of Flanders Count of Flanders, who briefly ruled the County of Flanders , together with his father Arnulf I.
1031 William of Volpiano an Italian monastic reformer and architect.
1049 Odilo of Cluny the fifth Benedictine Abbot of Cluny, holding the post for around 54 years.
1189 Henry of Marcy a Cistercian abbot first of Hautecombe and then of Clairvaux from 1177 until 1179. He was created Cardinal Bishop of Albano at the Third Lateran Council in 1179
1204 Haakon III of Norway King of Norway from 1202 to 1204.
1253 Marino Morosini the 44th doge of Venice. He governed from 1249 to 1253
1387 Charles II of Navarre King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
1406 Przemysław of Oświęcim a Duke of half of both Głogów and Ścinawa since 1404 and Duke of Oświęcim from 1405 until his death.
1496 Charles Count of Angoulême a member of the French Orléans family descended from Louis I de Valois, Duke of Orléans, who was the son of Charles V of France. He was the son of John, Count of Angoulême and Marguerite de Rohan, and was Count of Angoulême from 1467-1496. He married the 11 year-old, Louise of Savoy, daughter of Philip the Landless and Margaret of Bourbon, on 16 February 1488. They had two children:
1515 Louis XII of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498
1559 Christian III of Denmark reigned as king of Denmark and Norway from 1534 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg
1560 Joachim du Bellay a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.
1617 Hendrik Goltzius a Dutch printmaker, draftsman, and painter. He was the leading Dutch engraver of the early Baroque period, or Northern Mannerism, noted for his sophisticated technique and the "exuberance" of his compositions. According to Hyatt Mayor, Goltzius "was the last professional engraver who drew with the authority of a good painter and the last who invented many pictures for others to copy". In middle age he also began to produce paintings
1682 Jacob Kettler a Baltic German Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. Under his rule, the duchy was brought to its greatest peak in wealth and engaged in colonization
1697 Filippo Baldinucci an Italian art historian and biographer.
1710 William Bruce (architect) a Scottish gentleman-architect, "the effective founder of classical architecture in Scotland," as Howard Colvin observes. As a key figure in introducing the Palladian style into Scotland, he has been compared to the pioneering English architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren, and to the contemporaneous introducers of French style in English domestic architecture, Hugh May and Sir Roger Pratt
1723 Louis de Courcillon a French churchman and grammarian, best known for being the first to describe the nasal vowels in the French language. He was a younger brother of Philippe de Courcillon de Dangeau
1730 Samuel Sewall a judge, businessman, and printer in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized, and his essay The Selling of Joseph , which criticized slavery. He served for many years as the chief justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature, the province's high court
1730 Daniel Finch 2nd Earl of Nottingham an English Tory statesman during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
1737 Pier Antonio Micheli a Catholic priest and noted Italian botanist, professor of botany in Pisa, curator of the Orto Botanico di Firenze, author of Nova plantarum genera iuxta Tournefortii methodum disposita. He discovered the spores of mushrooms, was a leading authority on cryptogams, and coined several important genera of microfungi including Aspergillus and Botrytis
1742 Peregrine Bertie 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven a British nobleman and statesman.
1748 Johann Bernoulli a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is known for his contributions to infinitesimal calculus and educating Leonhard Euler in the pupil's youth
1758 Johann Friedrich von Cronegk born at Ansbach.
1759 Jacques-Joachim Trotti marquis de La Chétardie a French diplomat who engineered the coup d'etat that brought Elizaveta Petrovna to the Russian throne in 1741. In the course of his eventful career, La Chetardie was sent on diplomatic errands throughout Europe: in London , then in Holland and Prussia, in Russia twice, and finally in Turin in 1749 in the company of Jean-Louis Favier
1766 James Francis Edward Stuart the son of the deposed James II of England and Ireland. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones from the death of his father in 1701, when he was recognised as king of England, Scotland and Ireland by his cousin Louis XIV of France. Following his death in 1766, he was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession. Had his father not been deposed, there would have been only two monarchs during his lifetime; his father and himself. In reality, there were seven; his father, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I, George II and George III. Although the ruling Protestant Stuarts died out with his half-sister, Queen Anne, the last remaining Stuarts were James and his sons, and their endeavours to reclaim the throne while remaining devoted to their Catholic faith are remembered in history as Jacobitism
1775 Ahmad Shah Bahadur born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He succeeded his father to the throne as the 15th Mughal Emperor in the year 1748 at the age of 22. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of the usurping Imad-ul-Mulk
1782 Johann Christian Bach a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as "the London Bach" or "the English Bach", due to his time spent living in the British capital, where he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for influencing the concerto style of Mozart
1782 Juan Crespí a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias. A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen. He came to New Spain in 1749, and accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja Peninsula and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó
1789 Fletcher Norton 1st Baron Grantley an English politician.
1791 Yakov Knyazhnin Russia's foremost tragic author during the reign of Catherine the Great. Knyazhnin's contemporaries hailed him as the true successor to his father-in-law Alexander Sumarokov, but posterity, in the words of Vladimir Nabokov, tended to view his tragedies and comedies as "awkwardly imitated from more or less worthless French models"
1793 Francesco Guardi a Venetian painter of veduta, a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting
1796 Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics. He was born in Paris, and died there
1808 Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1756–1808) a member of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and a Duchess in Saxony by birth. Through her marriage to Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, Louise was also a member of the House of Mecklenburg and Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 24 April 1785 through 1 January 1808
1817 Martin Heinrich Klaproth a German chemist who discovered uranium , zirconium , and cerium.
1818 Fedele Fenaroli an Italian composer and teacher. Fenaroli entered the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, one of the Music conservatories of Naples, becoming a pupil of Francesco Durante. In 1762 he was appointed Maestro di Cappella. Among his students were many celebrated Italian composers, such as Domenico Cimarosa, Nicola Antonio Zingarelli, and Saverio Mercadante. Giuseppe Verdi was a second-generation student, as his teacher, Vincenzo Lavigna, was a student of Fenaroli. Fenaroli wrote several treatises on music, which were widely used during the nineteenth century. As a composer, he wrote mainly sacred music
1824 Vincent Strambi a Catholic bishop who was a member of the Passionist Congregation. He was canonised by Pope Pius XII in 1950
1829 Pedro Blanco Soto President of Bolivia for just a week cut short by his assassination in a convent called La Recoletta in Sucre on New Years Day 1829. He was shot on the roof above a stairwell while attempting to escape. A small plaque now marks the spot in the Museo de la Recoletta. He was well known for his pro Peru stance and this is generally the reason attributed to his assassination
1836 Bernhard Meyer a German physician and naturalist.
1837 Samuel Hulse a British Army officer. He saw his first active duty during the Gordon Riots in June 1780 before commanding the 1st Battalion of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards at key battles of the Flanders Campaign during the French Revolutionary Wars. He also commanded the 1st Guards Brigade at a later battle and then joined the retreat into Germany during the closing stages of the Flanders Campaign. He later took part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland and then returned to England to become General Officer Commanding South East District. After completing active service in the Army, he served in the household of King George IV
1844 Sir George Harpur Crewe 8th Baronet an English Tory politician who represented the constituency of South Derbyshire.
1846 John Torrington an explorer and Royal Navy stoker. He was part of an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, but died early in the trip and was buried on Beechey Island. His preserved body was exhumed in 1984, to try to determine the cause of death. It was the best preserved example of a corpse since the ancient Tollund Man which was found in the 1950s
1850 Princess Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia a daughter of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia and Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was a member of the House of Hohenzollern. By her marriage to Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, she would become Duchess consort of Anhalt-Dessau
1851 Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link a German naturalist and botanist.