January 1 events in history

69 The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor
193 The Senate chooses Pertinax against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman emperor
404 An infuriated Roman mob tears Telemachus, a Christian monk, to pieces for trying to stop a gladiators' fight in the public arena held in Rome
414 Galla Placidia, half-sister of Emperor Honorius, is married to the Visigothic king Ataulf at Narbonne. The wedding is celebrated with Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Gothic booty
417 Emperor Honorius forces Galla Placidia into marriage to Constantius, his famous general (magister militum)
1001 Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II
1068 Romanos IV Diogenes marries Eudokia Makrembolitissa and is crowned Byzantine Emperor
1259 Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris
1438 Albert II of Habsburg is crowned King of Hungary
1502 The present-day location of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is first explored by the Portuguese
1515 King Francis I of France succeeds to the French throne
1527 Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin
1600 Scotland begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25
1651 Charles II is crowned King of Scotland
1700 Russia begins using the Anno Domini era and no longer uses the Anno Mundi era of the Byzantine Empire
1707 John V is crowned King of Portugal
1739 Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier
1772 The first traveler's cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London, England, Great Britain
1773 The hymn that became known as "Amazing Grace", then titled "1 Chronicles 17:16–17" is first used to accompany a sermon led by John Newton in the town of Olney, England, Great Britain
1776 American Revolutionary War: Norfolk, Virginia is burned by combined Royal Navy and Continental Army action
1781 American Revolutionary War: 1,500 soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781
1788 First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, is published
1800 The Dutch East India Company is dissolved
1801 The dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi
1801 The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1803 Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam
1804 French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country in North America after the United States
1806 The French Republican Calendar is abolished
1808 The importation of slaves into the United States is banned
1810 Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB officially becomes Governor of New South Wales
1812 The Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners strike in Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham
1822 The Greek Constitution of 1822 is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus
1833 The United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands
1845 The Cobble Hill Tunnel in Brooklyn, New York, New York is completed
1847 The world's first "Mercy" Hospital is founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Sisters of Mercy, the name will go on to grace over 30 major hospitals throughout the world
1860 First Polish stamp is issued
1861 Porfirio Díaz conquers Mexico City, Mexico
1863 The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska
1863 American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory
1870 Adolf Loos, architect, co-founder of modern architecture, baptized in St. Thomas church, Brno, Moravia
1873 Japan begins using the Gregorian calendar
1877 Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom is proclaimed Empress of India
1880 Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal
1885 Twenty-five nations adopt Sandford Fleming's proposal for standard time (and also, time zones)
1890 Eritrea is consolidated into a colony by the Italian government
1890 The Rose Parade in Pasadena, California, is first held
1892 Ellis Island opens to begin processing immigrants into the United States
1894 The Manchester Ship Canal, is officially opened to traffic
1898 New York, New York annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs
1899 Spanish rule ends in Cuba