Born on January 10

291 Philomena Saint Philomena was, as believed by her devotees within the Catholic Church, a young virgin martyr whose remains were discovered in 1802 in the Catacombs of Priscilla. Three tiles enclosing the tomb bore an inscription that was taken to indicate that her name was Filumena, the English form of which is Philomena
1209 Möngke Khan the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251 to August 11, 1259. He was the first Great Khan from the Toluid line and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Nanzhao. He was given the Chinese-style temple name Emperor Xianzong of Yuan by his successor Kublai Khan, who founded the Yuan Dynasty
1480 Margaret of Austria Duchess of Savoy Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530.
1493 Nicolaus Olahus the Archbishop of Esztergom, Primate of Hungary, and a distinguished Roman Catholic prelate.
1538 Louis of Nassau the third son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.
1607 Isaac Jogues a Jesuit priest, missionary and martyr who traveled and worked among the native populations in North America. He gave the original European name to Lake George, calling it Lac du Saint Sacrement, Lake of the Blessed Sacrament. In 1646, Jogues was martyred by the Mohawk at their village of Ossernenon, a site near present-day Auriesville, New York
1610 Louis Maimbourg a French Jesuit and historian.
1628 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham an English statesman and poet from the Villiers family.
1635 Alexander Farnese Prince of Parma an Italian military leader, who was Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1678 until 1682.
1644 Louis François duc de Boufflers a Marshal of France.
1654 Joshua Barnes an English scholar. His work Gerania; a New Discovery of a Little Sort of People, anciently discoursed of, called Pygmies was an Utopian romance
1702 Johannes Zick a German painter of frescoes in southern Germany and active during the Baroque period. He was the father of painter Januarius Zick and considered to be an important master of the Late Baroque
1715 Christian August Crusius a German philosopher and Protestant theologian.
1729 Lazzaro Spallanzani an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory , though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur
1741 Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of George II and sister of George III.
1745 Isaac Titsingh a Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.
1747 Abraham-Louis Breguet a horologist who made many innovations in the course of a career in watchmaking in France. In his lifetime he was considered the leading watchmaker of his day, and he built up a clientele that included many leading public figures and members of the European nobility. Alongside his friend and contemporary John Arnold, Breguet is now widely acknowledged as one of the greatest horologists of all time
1750 Thomas Erskine 1st Baron Erskine a British lawyer and politician. He served as Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents
1752 Laurent Jean François Truguet a French admiral.
1760 Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg a German composer and conductor.
1763 Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac a French politician and statesman.
1769 Michel Ney a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of France created by Napoleon. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men and nicknamed le Brave des Braves by Napoleon
1775 Baji Rao II Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and governed from 1796 to 1818. His reign was marked by confrontations with the British
1776 George Birkbeck a British doctor, academic, philanthropist, pioneer in adult education and founder of Birkbeck College.
1780 Martin Lichtenstein a German physician, explorer, botanist and zoologist.
1783 Ludwig Lewin Jacobson a Danish surgeon.
1785 John Fleming (naturalist) a Scottish minister, naturalist, zoologist and geologist. He named and described a number of species of molluscs. He was born near Bathgate in Linlithgowshire and died in Edinburgh. During his life he tried to reconcile theology with science
1797 Eugenio Kincaid an American Baptist missionary who labored for two periods in Burma. In the first period, he served twelve years. In the second period, he served for another fifteen years. His mission work in Burma covered the whole range of the country, from the farthest north to the farthest south and from the farthest west to almost the farthest east. Between the two periods of his ministry, he had eight years of leave of absence during which he raised funds for the foreign missions, and in addition, helped in the foundation of the University of Lewisburg. At the age of 33, Eugenio Kincaid was sent by Baptist Board of Foreign Missions to preach the gospel in Burma
1797 Annette von Droste-Hülshoff a 19th-century German writer and composer. She was one of the most important German poets and author of the novella Die Judenbuche
1800 Lars Levi Laestadius a Swedish Sami pastor and administrator of the Swedish state Lutheran church in Lapland who founded the Laestadian pietist revival movement to help his largely Sami congregations, who were being ravaged by alcoholism. Laestadius was also a noted botanist and an author. Laestadius himself became a teetotaller in the 1840s, when he began successfully awakening his Sami parishioners to the misery and destruction alcohol was causing them
1802 Carl Ritter von Ghega the designer of the Semmering Railway from Gloggnitz to Mürzzuschlag. During his time, he was the most prominent of Austrian railway engineers and architects
1804 Élie Frédéric Forey a Marshal of France.
1806 Camillo di Pietro an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and both Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals and later Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
1810 Ferdinand Barbedienne a French metalworker and manufacturer, who was well known as a bronze founder.
1810 Jeremiah S. Black an American statesman and lawyer. He served as Chief Justice of Pennsylvania , Supreme Court Justice , Attorney General and the U.S. Secretary of State under President James Buchanan
1812 Georg Hermann Nicolai a German architect and educator, Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts on the Brühl Terrace in Dresden from 1850 until his death.
1814 Aubrey Thomas de Vere an Irish poet and critic.
1815 Theophan the Recluse a well-known saint in the Russian Orthodox Church. He was born George Vasilievich Govorov, in the village of Chernavsk. His father was a Russian Orthodox priest. He was educated in the seminaries at Livny, Orel and Kiev. In 1841 he was ordained, became a monk, and adopted the name Theophan. He later became the Bishop of Tambov
1817 Gustav Wilhelm Körber a German lichenologist.
1818 Ernst Ludwig Taschenberg a German entomologist.
1819 Pierre Édouard Frère French painter, studied under Paul Delaroche, entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1836 and exhibited first at the Salon in 1843. The marked sentimental tendency of his art makes us wonder at John Ruskin's enthusiastic eulogy which finds in Frère's work the depth of William Wordsworth, the grace of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and the holiness of Fra Angelico. What we can admire in his work is his accomplished craftsmanship and the intimacy and tender homeliness of his conception. Among his chief works are the two paintings, Going to School and Coming from School, The Little Glutton and L'Exercice. A journey to Egypt in 1860 resulted in a small series of Orientalist subjects, but the majority of Frère's paintings deal with the life of the kitchen, the workshop, the dwellings of the humble, and mainly with the pleasures and little troubles of the young, which the artist brings before us with humor and sympathy. He was one of the most popular painters of domestic genre in the middle of the 19th century
1820 Louisa Lane Drew an American actress and theatre owner of British birth and an ancestor of the Barrymore acting family.
1821 Janko Matúška a Slovak poet, activist, occasional playwright, and clerk of the court. He is best known as the author of the Slovak national anthem, Nad Tatrou sa blýska based on melody of Slovak folk song Kopala studienku
1821 Duchess Caroline Mariane of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz who became The Crown Princess of Denmark as the second spouse of the future king Frederick VII of Denmark.
1825 Friedrich Ritter von Friedländer-Malheim a Bohemian-Austrian painter.
1827 George William Cox a British historian. He is known for resolving the several myths of Greece and the world into idealisations of solar phenomena.The French poet Stéphane Mallarmé has translated some of his works under the title of Les dieux antiques"
1828 Herman Koeckemann now the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu — from 1881 to 1892.
1829 Epameinondas Deligiorgis a Greek lawyer, newspaper reporter and politician. His father hailed from Mesolonghi. Deligiorgis studied law at the University of Athens and entered politics in 1854. He was not a proponent of the Megali Idea and thought that a better solution to the Eastern Question would be to improve the condition of the Greeks living in Ottoman-controlled Macedonia, Epirus, Thrace and Asia Minor by liberalising the Ottoman Empire. Deligeorgis was the person who, on October 10, 1862, declared the end of the reign of King Otto and the convening of a national assembly
1834 John Dalberg-Acton 1st Baron Acton Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO, DL —known as Sir John Dalberg-Acton, 8th Bt from 1837 to 1869 and usually referred to simply as Lord Acton—was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer. He was the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and a grandson of the Neapolitan admiral Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. He is famous for his remark, "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men."
1835 Fukuzawa Yukichi a Japanese author, Enlightenment writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and journalist who founded Keio University, the newspaper Jiji-Shinpo and the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases. He was an early Japanese civil rights activist and liberal ideologist. His ideas about government and social institutions made a lasting impression on a rapidly changing Japan during the Meiji Era. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern Japan. He is called a Japanese Voltaire