Born on January 11

347 Theodosius I Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire
844 Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi the seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in Al-Andalus.
1113 Wang Chongyang a Chinese Taoist and one of the founders of the Quanzhen School in the 12th century during the Song dynasty. He was one of the Five Northern Patriarchs of Quanzhen. He also appears as a character in works of wuxia fiction
1322 Emperor Kōmyō the 2nd of the Ashikaga Pretenders, although he was actually the first to be supported by the Ashikaga Bakufu. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1336 through 1348
1359 Emperor Go-En'yū the "5th" of the Ashikaga Pretenders during the period of two courts. According to pre-Meiji scholars, his reign spanned the years from 1371 through 1382
1395 Michelle of Valois a Duchess consort of Burgundy. She was a daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. She was named for Saint Michael the Archangel after her father noted an improvement in his health after a pilgrimage to Mont Saint-Michel in 1393
1503 Parmigianino an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by elongation of form and includes Vision of Saint Jerome and the Madonna with the Long Neck
1545 Guidobaldo del Monte an Italian mathematician, philosopher and astronomer of the 16th century.
1591 Robert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the seventeenth century. With the start of the English Civil War in 1642 he became the first Captain-General and Chief Commander of the Parliamentarian army, also known as the Roundheads. However, he was unable and unwilling to score a decisive blow against the Royalist army of King Charles He was eventually overshadowed by the ascendancy of Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fairfax and resigned his commission in 1646
1622 Louis Duke of Joyeuse a younger son of Charles, Duke of Guise and Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse.
1630 John Rogers (Harvard) an English academic in early Colonial America. Eldest son of minister Nathaniel Rogers, he was born in Coggeshall, a small town in Essex, and immigrated to New England with his family in 1636. In 1649, at age 19, in the recent settlement of Cambridge , he earned a B.A. from Harvard College which, only seven years earlier, in 1642, had graduated its first class of students. In 1652, following an additional three years of study, he received an M.A. and, in 1660, married Elizabeth Denison of Ipswich
1632 Adam Frans van der Meulen a Flemish Baroque painter specialising in battle scenes. He was active first in Brussels, where he was a pupil of Pieter Snayers, and from the 1660s onwards in Paris
1642 Johann Friedrich Alberti a German composer and organist.
1653 Paolo Alessandro Maffei an antiquarian with a humanist education, who was active in Rome. Maffei was the son of Paolo Maffei and his wife Giovanna di Raffaele, both of patrician families of Volterra. He was a descendant of the humanist and papal bureaucrat Raffaele Maffei, "il Volterrano," , author of the Commentaria urbana , dedicated to Julius Paolo Alessandro was made a cavaliere of the Tuscan Order of Saint Stephen and an honorary member of the Papal Guard. He wrote the laudatory biography of Pope Pius V, in which he praised the Pope's suppression of newsletters and slanderous printed avvisi in 1572
1671 François-Marie 1st duc de Broglie a French military leader.
1673 Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp Prince of Eutin a cadet of the reigning ducal House of Holstein-Gottorp who became prince of Eutin, prince-bishop of Lübeck and regent of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp.
1696 Frederick William Prince of Solms-Braunfels the first Prince of Solms-Braunfels. He was the son of Count William Maurice of Solms-Braunfels and his wife Magdalene Sophie of Hesse-Homburg
1707 Giuseppe Bonito a Neapolitan painter of the Rococo period. Giuseppe Bonito is known for genre depictions on canvas. Many of Gaspare Traversi's paintings had previously been attributed to Bonito
1707 Vincenzo Riccati an Italian mathematician and physicist. He was the brother of Giordano Riccati, and the second son of Jacopo Riccati
1723 Prithvi Narayan Shah the first king of the unified Nepal. He is credited for starting the campaign for a unified Nepal, which had been divided and weakened under Malla confederacy. He was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah , the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father, King Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of the Gorkha Kingdom in 1743
1732 Peter Forsskål a Swedish explorer, orientalist, naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
1746 William Curtis an English botanist and entomologist, who was born at Alton, Hampshire.
1747 François Alexandre Frédéric duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt a French social reformer.
1753 Charlotte Buff a youthful acquaintance of the poet Goethe, who fell in love with her. She rejected him and instead married Johann Christian Kestner, a diplomat and art collector. In Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther, the character of Lotte is in part based on her. Their relationship was characterized by heartiness and lack of constraint. Goethe bought the wedding rings for her and Kestner, in Frankfurt am Main. Charlotte Kestner had four daughters and eight sons, among them August Kestner
1755 Alexander Hamilton a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first political party
1757 Samuel Bentham a noted English mechanical engineer and naval architect credited with numerous innovations, particularly related to naval architecture, including weapons. He was the only surviving sibling of philosopher Jeremy Bentham, with whom he had a close bond
1758 François Louis Bourdon a French politician of the Revolutionary period and procureur at the parlement of Paris.
1760 Oliver Wolcott Jr. United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1795 to 1800 and the 24th Governor of Connecticut from 1817 to 1827.
1771 Camille Jordan (politician) a French politician born in Lyon of a well-to-do mercantile family.
1774 Antoine Drouot one of Napoleon's generals.
1786 Joseph Jackson Lister an amateur British opticist and physicist and the father of Joseph Lister.
1788 William Thomas Brande an English chemist.
1797 Carl Rottmann a German landscape painter and the most famous member of the Rottmann family of painters.
1800 Ányos Jedlik a Hungarian inventor, engineer, physicist, and Benedictine priest. He was also a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books. He is considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor
1800 Karl Traugott Queisser played trombone and viola in Germany as a member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Felix Mendelssohn.
1801 Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão Marquis of Paraná a politician, diplomat, judge and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Paraná was born to a family of humble means in São Carlos do Jacuí, in what was then the captaincy of Minas Gerais. After attending the University of Coimbra in Portugal and having returned to Brazil, Paraná was appointed a judge in 1826 and later elevated to appellate court justice. In 1830, he was elected to represent Minas Gerais in the Chamber of Deputies; he was re-elected in 1834 and 1838, and held the post until 1841
1806 Ferdinand Minding a German-Russian mathematician known for his contributions to differential geometry. He continued the work of Gauss concerning differential geometry of surfaces, especially its intrinsic aspects. Minding considered questions of bending of surfaces and proved the invariance of geodesic curvature. He studied ruled surfaces, developable surfaces and surfaces of revolution and determined geodesics on the pseudosphere. Minding's results on the geometry of geodesic triangles on a surface of constant curvature anticipated Beltrami's approach to the foundations of non-Euclidean geometry
1807 Ezra Cornell an American businessman and education administrator. He was the founder of Western Union and a co-founder of Cornell University. He also served as President of the New York Agriculture Society and as a state Senator
1810 Johann Ludwig Krapf a German missionary in East Africa, as well as an explorer, linguist, and traveler. Krapf played an important role in exploring East Africa with Johannes Rebmann. They were the first Europeans to see Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. Krapf also played a key role in exploring the East African coastline
1812 James Brown (bishop of Shrewsbury) an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1851 to 1881
1814 James Paget best remembered for Paget's disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. His famous works included Lectures on Tumours and Lectures on Surgical Pathology. While most people recall Paget's disease refers to bone, two other diseases were also named after him: Paget's disease of the nipple , and extramammary Paget's disease. Also named for him is Paget's abscess
1814 Charles Baker Adams an American educator and naturalist.
1815 John A. Macdonald the first Prime Minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century. Macdonald served 19 years as Canadian Prime Minister; only William Lyon Mackenzie King served longer
1818 Théodore Juste a Belgian historian and literary scholar. He became curator of the Musée royal d'antiquités, d'armures et d'artillerie in 1859
1819 Francis Xavier Seelos a German-American Roman Catholic priest and Redemptorist missionary.
1823 Pierre Philippe Denfert-Rochereau a French serviceman and politician. He achieved fame by successfully defending besieged Belfort during the Franco-Prussian War: this earned him the soubriquet the Lion of Belfort
1825 Bayard Taylor an American poet, literary critic, translator, and travel author.
1827 Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria an Austrian prime minister. He was a son of Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria and Princess Elisabeth of Savoy
1833 Joseph Malone (VC) an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
1833 Prince Gong (Qing dynasty) a prince and statesman of the Qing dynasty. He was the sixth son of the Daoguang Emperor and a half brother of Daoguang's successor, the Xianfeng emperor. He served as a regent during the reign of Xianfeng's son and successor, the Tongzhi emperor. Having established the Zongli Yamen — a government body in charge of foreign affairs — in 1861, Yixin is best remembered as a proponent of friendly relations between the Qing government and other great powers of that era, as well as for his attempts to modernise China in the late 19th century. The last decades of his career were marked by conflict with conservative elements in the court, and he died in relative disgrace