Born on January 12

1483 Henry III of Nassau-Breda a count of the House of Nassau.
1562 Charles Emmanuel I Duke of Savoy the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was also nicknamed Testa d'feu for his rashness and military attitudes
1567 Jan Szczęsny Herburt Polish-Ukrainian political writer, diplomat, poseł to the Sejm. Early supporter of kanclerz Jan Zamoyski, took part in many diplomatic missions. Later, supporter of the king Sigismund III Vasa and eventually his opponent, one of the leaders of rokosz of Zebrzydowski in 1607, imprisoned by royalists from 1607 to 1609. Author of many rokosz-related and anti-magnate treaties. Founder of the Kudryntsi Castle
1576 Petrus Scriverius a Dutch writer and scholar on the history of Holland and Belgium.
1580 Jan Baptist van Helmont a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician. He worked during the years just after Paracelsus and iatrochemistry, and is sometimes considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry". Van Helmont is remembered today largely for his ideas on spontaneous generation, his 5-year tree experiment, and his introduction of the word "gas" into the vocabulary of scientists
1580 Alexander Ruthven a Scottish nobleman. He is most notable for his participation in the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600
1583 Niccolò Alamanni a Roman antiquarian of Greek origin. He was educated in Rome at the Greek College, founded by Gregory XIII, but was ordained deacon and priest according to the Latin rite
1591 Jusepe de Ribera a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, better known as Jusepe de Ribera or Giuseppe Ribera. He also was called Lo Spagnoletto by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy
1597 François Duquesnoy a Flemish Baroque sculptor in Rome. His more idealized representations are often contrasted with the emotional character of Bernini's works, while his style shows greater affinity to Algardi's sculptures
1628 Charles Perrault a French author and member of the Académie française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge , Cendrillon , Le Chat Botté , La Belle au bois dormant and La Barbe bleue. Many of Perrault's stories, which were rewritten by the Brothers Grimm, continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet , theatre, and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, and was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns
1638 Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg military governor of Vienna from 1680, the city's defender during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, Imperial general during the Great Turkish War, and President of the Hofkriegsrat.
1649 Jacques Carrey a French painter and draughtsman, now remembered almost exclusively for the series of drawings he made of the Parthenon, Athens, in 1674.
1672 Willem Bosman a merchant in the service of the Dutch West India Company, spending most of his time in the Dutch Gold Coast.
1673 Rosalba Carriera a Venetian Rococo painter. In her younger years, she specialized in portrait miniatures. She later became known for her pastel work, a medium appealing to Rococo styles for its soft edges and flattering surfaces
1694 Johann Heinrich Callenberg a German Orientalist, Lutheran professor of theology and philology, and promoter of conversion attempts among Jews and Muslims.
1702 Józef Andrzej Załuski a Polish Catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, a sponsor of learning and culture, and a renowned bibliophile. A member of the Polish nobility , bearing the hereditary Junosza coat-of-arms, he is most famous as co-founder of the Załuski Library, one of the largest 18th-century book collections in the world
1702 Jacques Aved a French painter of the 18th century and one of the main French Rococo portraitists. He painted the Ottoman Empire ambassador to France in 1742, Mehmed Said Efendi
1711 Gaetano Latilla an Italian opera composer, the most important of the period immediately preceding Niccolò Piccinni.
1715 Jacques Duphly a French harpsichordist and composer.
1716 Antonio de Ulloa a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana.
1721 Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German-Prussian field marshal known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover
1722 Nicolas Luckner a German in French service who rose to become a Marshal of France.
1723 Samuel Langdon an American Congregational clergyman and educator. After serving as pastor in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he was appointed president of Harvard University in 1774. He held that post until 1780
1724 Frances Brooke an English novelist, essayist, playwright and translator.
1729 Edmund Burke an Irish statesman born in Dublin; author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.
1731 William Hamilton (diplomat) a Scottish diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and vulcanologist. After a short period as a Member of Parliament, he served as British Ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples from 1764 to 1800. He studied the volcanoes Vesuvius and Etna, becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society and recipient of the Copley Medal
1733 Antoine-Marin Lemierre a French dramatist and poet.
1746 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
1751 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars. Before that he had been, since 1759, Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples and Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily. He was deposed twice from the throne of Naples: once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republic for six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805
1758 Dmitry Gorchakov a Russian writer, dramatist and poet, best known for his satirical verses and three comical operas, staged at the end of the 18th century.
1760 Zofia Potocka beautiful as a dream, a child far southern countries. Admire the beauty of all those who have only seen her, igniting a fire in the hearts of men and women in the eyes of envy."
1763 Georges Michel (painter) a French landscape painter. An important precursor of the Barbizon school, Michel was practically unknown during his lifetime, and worked as copyist and restorer
1767 Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno comte Daru a French soldier, statesman, historian, and poet. The French generally refer to him as Pierre Daru
1772 Mikhail Speransky a Russian reformist during the reign of Alexander I of Russia, to which he was a close advisor. He later served under Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. Speransky is referred to as the father of Russian liberalism
1777 Stepan Davydov a Russian composer and singer.
1778 William Herbert (botanist) The Hon. William Herbert was a British botanist, botanical illustrator, poet, and clergyman. He served as a member of parliament for Hampshire from 1806 to 1807, and for Cricklade from 1811 to 1812
1780 Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette a German theologian and biblical scholar.
1783 Erik Gustaf Geijer a Swedish writer, historian, poet, philosopher, and composer. His writings served to promote Swedish National Romanticism. He also was an influential advocate of Liberalism
1786 Sir Robert Inglis 2nd Baronet an English Conservative politician, noted for his staunch High church views.
1792 Johan August Arfwedson a Swedish chemist who discovered the chemical element lithium in 1817 by isolating it as a salt.
1794 Franz Hauser a singer, voice teacher, and music manuscript collector.
1797 Gideon Brecher an Austrian physician and writer.
1800 Eugène Lami a French painter and lithographer. He worked at the studio of Horace Vernet then studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris with Camille Roqueplan and Paul Delaroche under Antoine-Jean Gros. While there, he learned watercolor technique from Richard Parkes Bonington and later became a founding member of the Society of French Watercolorists. Lami's 1881 watercolor titled A Couple Embracing is at the Getty Museum in Los Angeles, California
1800 George Villiers 4th Earl of Clarendon an English diplomat and statesman from the Villiers family.
1809 Leopoldo O'Donnell 1st Duke of Tetuan a Spanish general and statesman. He was of Irish paternal descent, a descendant of Calvagh O'Donnell, Rí of Tyrconnell
1809 Émile Loubon a French genre painter.
1810 Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.
1818 Ludwig Traube (physician) a German physician and co-founder of the experimental pathology in Germany.
1819 Zealous Bates Tower an American soldier and civil engineer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was most noted for constructing the solid defenses of Federal-occupied Nashville, Tennessee, which proved to withstand repeated attacks by the Confederates
1819 Bogdan Willewalde a Russian artist, academic, emeritus Professor of military art, and a fellow of the Imperial Academy of Arts.