Died on January 12

690 Benedict Biscop an Anglo-Saxon abbot and founder of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory and was considered a saint after his death.
951 Al-Farabi a renowned scientist and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age. He was also a cosmologist, logician, and musician, representing the multidisciplinary approach of muslim scientists
1027 Theodoric I Duke of Upper Lorraine the count of Bar and duke of Upper Lorraine from 978 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick I and Beatrice, daughter of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and sister to the French king Hugh Capet
1049 Abū-Sa'īd Abul-Khayr a famous Persian Sufi and poet who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition.
1140 Louis I Landgrave of Thuringia ruler of Thuringia from 1123 to 1140.
1167 Aelred of Rievaulx an English writer, abbot of Rievaulx , and saint.
1321 Marie of Brabant Queen of France Queen consort of France.
1464 Thomas Ebendorfer an Austrian historian, professor, and statesman.
1519 Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign, from 1483. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy
1537 Lorenzo di Credi an Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor. He first influenced Leonardo da Vinci and then was greatly influenced by him
1550 Andrea Alciato an Italian jurist and writer. He is regarded as the founder of the French school of legal humanists
1563 Macarius Metropolitan of Moscow a notable Russian cleric, writer, and icon painter who served as the Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia from 1542 until 1563.
1665 Pierre de Fermat given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica
1667 Bernard of Corleone Saint Bernard of Corleone, O.F.M. Cap., is a Catholic saint who was born in the town of Corleone in the Kingdom of Sicily on 6 February 1605. His name was Filippo Latino before becoming a friar. His father was a shoemaker, and Bernard learned this trade. After the death of his father, he became a soldier and took up fencing, becoming skilled in the art. While in the army he displayed a fiery temper and was quick to challenge men to a duel. His only fault, in the words of two witnesses at his beatification process, was that "he was quick to draw his sword at the slightest provocation." His life was not noted for its moral content and he had quite a reputation in the company
1674 Giacomo Carissimi an Italian composer. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music
1700 Marguerite Bourgeoys the French foundress of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal in the colony of New France, now part of Canada. She lived in Fort Ville-Marie as of 1653, educating young girls, the poor, and natives until her death at the turn of the 18th century. She is also significant for developing one of the first uncloistered religious communities in the Catholic Church. She has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1705 Luca Giordano an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain
1735 John Eccles (composer) an English composer.
1759 Anne Princess Royal and Princess of Orange the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort, Caroline of Ansbach. She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of the Netherlands. Princess Anne was the second daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. She was Regent of the Netherlands from 1751 until her death in 1759, exercising extensive powers on behalf of her son William Because of her English upbringing and family connections, she was known as an Anglophile - despite being unable to convince the Dutch Republic to enter the Seven Years' War on the side of the British
1765 Johann Melchior Molter a German baroque composer and violinist.
1777 Hugh Mercer a soldier and physician. He initially served with British forces during the Seven Years' War but later became a brigadier general in the Continental Army and a close friend to George Washington. Mercer died as a result of his wounds received at the Battle of Princeton and became a fallen hero and rallying symbol of the American Revolution
1778 François Bigot a French government official. He served as the Financial Commissary on Île Royale and as Intendant of New France. He was the last official ever to hold the latter position, losing it on the occasion of the conquest of 1760. He was subsequently accused of corruption and put on trial in France, and upon conviction was thrown into the Bastille for eleven months. Upon his release, Bigot was further sentenced to lifelong banishment. However, shortly after the judgement was made, Bigot escaped to Switzerland where he would live until his dying day
1781 Richard Challoner an English Roman Catholic bishop, a leading figure of English Catholicism during the greater part of the 18th century. He is perhaps most famous for his revision of the Douay Rheims translation of the Bible
1786 Claude-Henri Watelet a rich French fermier-général who was an amateur painter, a well-respected etcher, a writer on the arts and a connoisseur of gardens. Watelet's inherited privilege of farming taxes in the Orléanais left him free to pursue his avocations, art and literature and gardens. His Essai sur les jardins, 1774, firmly founded on English ideas expressed by Thomas Whately, introduced the English landscape garden to France, as the jardin Anglois. The sociable Watelet, who was born and died in Paris, was at the center of the French art world of his time
1788 Francisco Noronha a Spanish physician and botanist who resided for some time at Manila, Luzon, Philippines, where he took much effort to organize the Royal Botanic Garden and stock it with valuable plants. Three sets of his water-colour drawings of Javan plants and one set of 108 numbered drawings still exist. Williams describes him as "a Spanish physician and botanist who had visited Madagascar", while Zuidevaart & Van Gent call him "a capable botanist from Manila" who in 1786 had taken over supervision of the museum of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences in Java
1819 André Morellet a French economist writer and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. He was one of the last of the philosophes, and in this character he figures in many memoirs, such as those of Madame de Rémusat
1821 Sir John Macpherson 1st Baronet a Scottish administrator in India. He was the acting Governor-General of India from 1785 to 1786
1822 Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider a German classicist and naturalist.
1829 Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and indologist. With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of the Jena romantics. He was a zealous promoter of the Romantic movement and inspired Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Adam Mickiewicz and Kazimierz Brodziński. Schlegel was a pioneer in Indo-European studies, comparative linguistics, in what became known as Grimm's law, and morphological typology. As a young man he was an atheist, a radical, and an individualist. Ten years later, the same Schlegel converted to Catholicism. Around 1810 he was a diplomat and journalist in the service of Metternich, surrounded by monks and pious men of society
1831 Princess Louise of Denmark (1750–1831) born to Frederick V of Denmark and Louise of Great Britain. Her eldest daughter, Marie of Hesse-Kassel, was the wife of Frederick VI of Denmark
1831 Giuseppe Longhi an Italian printmaker and writer.
1833 Marie-Antoine Carême an early practitioner and exponent of the elaborate style of cooking known as grande cuisine, the "high art" of French cooking: a grandiose style of cookery favoured by both international royalty and by the newly rich of Paris. Carême is often considered as one of the first internationally renowned celebrity chefs
1834 William Grenville 1st Baron Grenville a British Whig statesman. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807 as head of the Ministry of All the Talents
1839 Joseph Anton Koch perhaps the most significant neoclassical landscape painter.
1842 Wilhelm Traugott Krug a German philosopher and writer.
1843 Prince Antonio Count of Lecce a son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and a brother of Ferdinand II King of the Two Sicilies. Known by his tile of Count of Lecce, he was killed at age 26
1848 Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck a Prussian field marshal and military adviser in the Napoleonic Wars.
1851 Henry Pelham-Clinton 4th Duke of Newcastle a British nobleman and politician who played a leading part in British politics in the late 1820s and early 1830s. He was styled Lord Clinton from birth until 1794 and Earl of Lincoln between 1794 and 1795
1855 Maria Theresa of Austria (1801–1855) born an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany. In 1817 she married and became the Queen of Sardinia. She was the wife of King Charles Albert of Sardinia and a daughter of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Luisa of Naples and Sicily. She was named after her double great grandmother Empress Maria Theresa
1856 Ľudovít Štúr the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, the author of the Slovak language standard eventually leading to the contemporary Slovak literary language. Štúr was an organizer of the Slovak volunteer campaigns during the 1848 Revolution, he was also politician, poet, journalist, publisher, teacher, philosopher, linguist and member of the Hungarian Parliament
1861 Václav Hanka a Czech philologist.
1865 Karl Ullmann a German Calvinist theologian from the Electoral Palatinate.
1865 Kunisada the most popular, prolific and financially successful designer of ukiyo-e woodblock prints in 19th-century Japan. In his own time, his reputation far exceeded that of his contemporaries, Hokusai, Hiroshige and Kuniyoshi
1869 Désiré Dalloz a French jurist, politician and publisher.
1871 Konstantin Konstantinov a Russian artillery officer and scientist in the fields of artillery, rocketry and instrument making. He completed his military career at the rank of Lieutenant General
1871 Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois a French dramatist. He was born in Paris
1875 Tongzhi Emperor the tenth emperor of the Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China. His reign, from 1861 to 1875, which effectively lasted through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the rule of his mother Empress Dowager Cixi. Although he had little influence over state affairs, the events of his reign gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an unsuccessful attempt to stabilise and modernise China
1877 Wilhelm Hofmeister a German biologist and botanist. He "stands as one of the true giants in the history of biology and belongs in the same pantheon as Darwin and Mendel." He was largely self-taught
1877 François Buloz a French littérateur, magazine editor, and theater administrator.
1879 Auguste Ambroise Tardieu a French medical doctor and the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist of the mid-19th century.