Born on January 13

101 Lucius Aelius Caesar became the adopted son and intended successor of Roman Emperor Hadrian , but never attained the throne. Aelius was born with the name Lucius Ceionius Commodus, and later called Lucius Aelius Caesar. He is often mistakenly referred to as Lucius Aelius Verus, though this name is not attested outside the Augustan History and probably arose as a manuscript error
915 Al-Hakam II the second Caliph of Córdoba, in Al-Andalus , and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976
1147 Robert de Craon the second Grand Master of the Knights Templar from June 1136 until his death. He was a member of the Craon family
1334 Henry II of Castile the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother, King Peter, after numerous rebellions and battles. As king he was involved in the Ferdinand Wars and the Hundred Years' War
1381 Saint Colette a French abbess and the foundress of the Colettine Poor Clares, a reform branch of the Order of Saint Clare, better known as the Poor Clares. Due to a number of miraculous events claimed during her life, she is venerated as the patron saint of women seeking to conceive, expectant mothers and sick children
1400 John Constable of Portugal a Portuguese infante of the House of Aviz, Constable of Portugal and master of the Portuguese Order of James. In Portugal, he is commonly referred to as the O Infante Condestável
1505 Joachim II Hector Elector of Brandenburg a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, Joachim II was the son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, and his wife Elizabeth of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
1562 Mark Alexander Boyd a Scottish poet and soldier of fortune. He was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. His father was from Pinkell, Carrick in Ayrshire. Boyd left Scotland for France as a young man. There he studied civil law. He took part in the religious wars of the League, fighting on the Catholic side
1596 Jan van Goyen a Dutch landscape painter. Van Goyen was an extremely prolific artist; approximately twelve hundred paintings and more than one thousand drawings by him are known
1598 François Mansart a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France. The Encyclopædia Britannica cites him as the most accomplished of 17th-century French architects whose works "are renowned for their high degree of refinement, subtlety, and elegance"
1610 Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1610–1665) Electress of Bavaria as the spouse of Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria. She also served as Regent of Bavaria during the minority of her son
1616 Antoinette Bourignon a French-Flemish mystic and adventurer. She taught that the end times would come soon and that the Last Judgment would then be felled. Her belief was that she was chosen by God to restore true Christianity on earth and became the central figure of a spiritual network that extended beyond the borders of the Dutch Republic, including Holstein and Scotland. Bourignon's sect belonged to the spiritualist movements that have been characterized as the "third power"
1635 Philipp Spener a German Christian theologian known as the "Father of Pietism.".
1652 Henry Booth 1st Earl of Warrington a Member of Parliament, Privy Councillor, Protestant protagonist in the Revolution of 1688, Mayor of Chester and author.
1652 Antoine Anselme a widely noted French preacher.
1655 Bernard de Montfaucon a French Benedictine monk, and a scholar who founded the discipline of palaeography, as well as being an editor of works of the Fathers of the Church. He is also regarded to be one of the founders of modern archaeology
1659 Johann Arnold Nering a German Baroque architect in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1674 Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon a French poet and tragedian.
1683 Christoph Graupner a German harpsichordist and composer of high Baroque music who lived and worked at the same time as Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann and George Frideric Handel.
1690 Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel a prolific German baroque composer.
1731 Carl von Gontard a German architect; he worked primarily in Berlin, Potsdam, and Bayreuth.
1749 Maler Müller best known for his slightly sentimental prose idylls on country life. Usually known as Maler Müller
1764 Franz Lauska a Moravian pianist, composer, and teacher of Giacomo Meyerbeer. Lauska was considered "one of the most brilliant executants of his time."
1775 Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski a Polish nobleman , politician, landowner, and patron of arts.
1785 Carl Adolph Agardh a Swedish botanist specializing in algae, who was eventually appointed bishop of Karlstad.
1786 Pierre-Dominique Bazaine a French scientist and engineer. He was educated at the École polytechnique in Paris as an engineer. At the request of Alexander I of Russia he was sent to Russia by Napoleon I as an army officer in the engineering corps to set up an institute for the education of transportation engineers, and in 1824 he became its director. Bazaine remained in Russia until 1834, organizing transportation routes and directing the work of inland navigation. He was responsible for many of the bridges of Petersburg and its outskirts , as well as other major civil engineering projects, including flood protection. He received many Honours and Awards for his extensive contribution to the infrastructure of Russia, as well as Honorary Fellowship of a number of science academies across Europe for his ground-breaking mathematical theses. He finally returned to France in 1834 and died in Paris aged 52 in 1838
1787 John Davis (Massachusetts governor) an American lawyer, businessman and politician from Massachusetts. He spent 25 years in public service, serving in both houses of the United States Congress and for three non-consecutive years as Governor of Massachusetts. Because of his reputation for personal integrity he was known as "Honest John" Davis
1799 Antoine Laurent Bayle a French physician born in Le Vernet, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. He was a nephew to pathologist Gaspard Laurent Bayle
1802 Eduard von Bauernfeld born at Vienna.
1804 Paul Gavarni the nom de plume of Sulpice Guillaume Chevalier , a French caricaturist, born in Paris. He began life as an engineer's draughtsman, but soon turned his attention to his proper vocation as an artist
1805 Thomas Dyer served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois for the Democratic Party. He also served as the founding president of the Chicago Board of Trade
1806 Michel Chevalier a French engineer, statesman, economist and free market liberal.
1807 Alexey Galakhov a Russian author and literary historian, best known for his Russian Reader for Children , and The History of Russian Literature, Old and New. Galakhov, the Professor at the Saint Petersburg History and Philology Institute, contributed regularly to numerous high profile magazines, most notably, Andrey Krayevsky's Otechestvennye Zapiski where from 1839 till 1856 he published more than 900 articles and reviews, occasionally under the pseudonym Sto Odin. He was the author of several novelettes and books of memoirs
1808 Salmon P. Chase an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States
1809 Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust a German and Austrian statesman.
1812 Victor de Laprade a French poet and critic.
1814 Michelangelo Celesia O.S.B. Cas. was an Italian Benedictine monk who served as the Archbishop of Palermo from 1871 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1884
1827 Nikolay Beketov a Russian physical chemist and metallurgist.
1830 Filippo Filippi an Italian music critic. He wrote for the Milanese music magazine La perseveranza, and was an admirer of and frequent correspondent with Giuseppe Verdi
1832 Horatio Alger Jr. a prolific 19th-century American author, best known for his many juvenile novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty. His writings were characterized by the "rags-to-riches" narrative, which had a formative effect on America during the Gilded Age. Alger's name is often invoked incorrectly as though he himself rose from rags to riches, but that arc applied to his characters, not to the author. Essentially, all of Alger's novels share the same theme: a young boy struggles through hard work to escape poverty. Critics, however, are quick to point out that it is not the hard work itself that rescues the boy from his fate, but rather some extraordinary act of bravery or honesty, which brings him into contact with a wealthy elder gentleman, who takes the boy in as a ward. The boy might return a large sum of money that was lost or rescue someone from an overturned carriage, bringing the boy—and his plight—to the attention of some wealthy individual. It has been suggested that this reflects Alger's own patronizing attitude to the boys he tried to help
1834 John Gilbert Baker an English botanist. His son was the botanist Edmund Gilbert Baker
1838 Oskar Grippenberg commanding general of the Russian Second Manchurian Army during the Russo-Japanese War.
1838 Joseph Dupont (violinist) a Belgian violinist, leader, theatre director and conductor.
1840 Louis van Waefelghem a Belgian violinist, violist and one of the greatest viola d'amore players of the 19th century. He also composed several works and made transcriptions for viola and viola d'amore
1842 Alfred Yarrow a British shipbuilder who started a shipbuilding dynasty, Yarrow Shipbuilders.
1844 Catherine Breshkovsky a Russian socialist, better known as Babushka the Grandmother of the Russian Revolution.
1845 German Lopatin a Russian revolutionary, journalist and writer.
1845 Félix Tisserand a French astronomer.
1846 Benigno Ferreira President of Paraguay November 25, 1906 – July 4, 1908. He was a member of the Liberal Party
1848 Lilla Cabot Perry an American artist who worked in the American Impressionist style, rendering portraits and landscapes in the free form manner of her mentor, Claude Monet. Perry was an early advocate of the French Impressionist style and contributed to its reception in the United States. Perry's early work was shaped by her exposure to the Boston school of artists and her travels in Europe and Japan. She was also greatly influenced by Ralph Waldo Emerson's philosophies and her friendship with Camille Pissarro. Although it was not until the age of thirty-six that Perry received formal training, her work with artists of the Impressionist, Realist, Symbolist, and German Social Realist movements greatly affected the style of her oeuvre