Died on January 13

86 Gaius Marius a Roman general and statesman. He held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his important reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts. Marius defeated the invading Germanic tribes , for which he was called "the third founder of Rome." His life and career were significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire
533 Saint Remigius Bishop of Reims and Apostle of the Franks. On 24 December 496 he baptised Clovis I, King of the Franks. This baptism, leading to the conversion of the entire Frankish people to Nicene Christianity, was a momentous success for the Catholic Church and a seminal event in European history
614 Saint Mungo the late 6th-century apostle of the Britonnic Kingdom of Strathclyde, the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow.
703 Empress Jitō the 41st monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
731 Berhtwald the ninth Archbishop of Canterbury in England. The medieval writer Bede claims that he served as the Abbot of Glastonbury, and documentary evidence names Berhtwald as abbot at Reculver before his election as archbishop. Berhtwald begins the first continuous series of native-born Archbishops of Canterbury, although there had been previous Anglo-Saxon archbishops, they had not succeeded each other until Berhtwald's reign
858 Æthelwulf of Wessex King of Wessex from 839 until his death in 858. He was the only known child of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered the kingdom of Kent on behalf of his father in 825, and was sometime later made King of Kent as a sub-king to Egbert. He succeeded his father as King of Wessex on Egbert's death in 839, at which time his kingdom stretched from the county of Kent in the east to Devon in the west. At the same time his eldest son Æthelstan became sub-king of Kent as a subordinate ruler
888 Charles the Fat the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888. The youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, Charles was a great-grandson of Charlemagne and was the last Carolingian to rule over a united empire
1049 Dirk IV Count of Holland Count of Holland from 1039 to 1049. Dirk's date of birth is unknown but it was probably 1030 or shortly before, he was described as "adolescent" at the time of his death. His base of operations was the stronghold his father built at Vlaardingen. Contemporary chroniclers referred to him as "Theodericus de Phlardirtinga" and as margrave thereof. The exact extent of his domain is not known, but at one time or another it stretched north to at least Rijnsburg and east to roughly Aalburg
1151 Suger a French abbot, statesmen, historian and one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture.
1177 Henry II Duke of Austria the Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1140 to 1141, the Margrave of Austria from 1141 to 1156, the Duke of Bavaria from 1141 to 1156 as Henry XI, and the Duke of Austria from 1156 to 1177. He was a member of the House of Babenberg
1200 Otto I Count of Burgundy Count of Burgundy from 1190 to his death and briefly Count of Luxembourg from 1196 to 1197. He was the fourth son of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa by his second wife Countess Beatrice I of Burgundy, heiress of Count Renaud III
1330 Frederick the Fair Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany from 1314 as Frederick III until his death.
1352 Władysław of Legnica a Duke of Legnica during 1296-1312 , of Brzeg and Wrocław during 1296-1311.
1363 Meinhard III Count of Gorizia-Tyrol Duke of Upper Bavaria and the last Count of Tyrol from the House of Wittelsbach. Meinhard was the son of Duke Louis V of Bavaria with Countess Margaret, Countess of Tyrol and as such also the last descendant of Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia
1368 Marco Cornaro the 59th doge of Venice, ruling between 1365 and 1368. His brief reign saw the loss of Venetian territory to Genoa and the Ottoman Empire, though Venice was to enjoy economic growth during this time
1378 Đurađ I Balšić the Lord of Zeta from 1362 – 13 January 1378. He was the eldest of the three sons of Balša I, and belonged to the House of Balšić
1400 Thomas le Despenser 1st Earl of Gloucester the son of Edward le Despenser, 1st Baron le Despencer, whom he succeeded in 1375.
1546 Jeremias I of Constantinople Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople two times, from 1522 to 1524 and from 1525 to 1546.
1571 John Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin a member of the House of Hohenzollern and a Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin.
1591 Antonio Carafa an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal.
1593 Symon Budny a Polish and Belarusian humanist, educator, Hebraist, Bible translator, Church reformator, philosopher, sociologist and historian, active in the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was one of the first to promote the development of Belarusian culture in Belarusian language. He was one of the leaders of the Polish Brethren
1599 Edmund Spenser recognised as one of the premier craftsmen of Modern English verse in its infancy, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.
1625 Jan Brueghel the Elder a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Bruegel the Elder and father of Jan Brueghel the Younger. Nicknamed "Velvet" Brueghel, "Flower" Brueghel, and "Paradise" Brueghel, of which the latter two were derived from his floral still lifes and paradise landscapes, while the former may refer to the velveteen sheen of his colors
1654 Jacques Lemercier a French architect and engineer, one of the influential trio that included Louis Le Vau and François Mansart who formed the classicizing French Baroque manner, drawing from French traditions of the previous century and current Roman practice the fresh, essentially French synthesis associated with Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII.
1658 Edward Sexby an English Puritan soldier and Leveller in the army of Oliver Cromwell. Later he turned against Cromwell and plotted his assassination
1687 Jean Claude a French Protestant divine.
1691 George Fox an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
1717 Maria Sibylla Merian a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family, founders of one of Europe's largest publishing houses in the 17th century.
1735 Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg the second wife of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont whom she married in 1724. The mother of the future Victor Amadeus III, she was queen consort of Sardinia from 1730 until her death in 1735
1768 Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin a French flutist and composer of the late Baroque period. Born in Provence, Buffardin was a flute soloist at the court of the Elector of Saxony in Dresden from 1715 to 1749. He was the teacher of flautists Johann Joachim Quantz, Pietro Grassi Florio, and Johann Sebastian Bach's elder brother, Johann Jacob Bach, whom he met in Constantinople sometime before 1712
1768 Giuseppe Simone Assemani a Lebanese Maronite orientalist.
1775 Johann Georg Walch a German Lutheran theologian.
1780 Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
1790 Luc Urbain de Bouëxic comte de Guichen a French admiral who commanded the French fleets that fought the British at the First Battle of Ushant and the Battle of Martinique during the American War of Independence.
1796 John Anderson (natural philosopher) a Scottish natural philosopher and liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women.
1797 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern Queen of Prussia from 1740 to 1786 as the spouse of Frederick the Great. By birth, she was a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was also the longest serving queen of Prussia
1799 Ivan Ivanovich Belsky a Russian painter. He was part of the "Belsky Dynasty" of painters of the Eighteenth Century and one of the first teachers at the Imperial Academy of Arts, where he taught history painting
1800 Peter von Biron the last Duke of Courland from 1769 to 1795.
1807 Pierre Joseph Buchoz a French physician, lawyer and naturalist.
1827 Jean Denis comte Lanjuinais a French politician, lawyer, jurist, journalist, and historian.
1828 Elizabeth Craven an author, playwright, traveller, and socialite, perhaps best known for her travelogues. She was the third child of the 4th Earl of Berkeley, born near Trafalgar Square in the English City of Westminster
1830 Nikolai Putyatin a philanthropist, philosopher and eccentric personality from the Rurikid dynasty.
1832 Thomas Lord an English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1787 to 1802. He made a brief comeback, playing in one further match in 1815. Overall, Lord made 90 known appearances in first-class cricket. He was mostly associated with Middlesex and with Marylebone Cricket Club as a ground staff bowler
1834 Nicolaus Thomas Host an Austrian botanist, and the personal physician of Holy Roman Emperor Francis His botanical works include Synopsis plantarum in Austria and the four-volume Austriacorum Icones et descriptions graminum; he was also the first director of the botanical garden at the Belvedere palace. The genus Hosta is named for him
1838 Ferdinand Ries a German composer. Ries was a friend, pupil and secretary of Ludwig van Beethoven. He composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, eight piano concertos and numerous other works in many genres, including 26 string quartets. In 1838 he published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher Beethoven, co-written with Franz Wegeler. The symphonies, some chamber works—most of them with piano— his violin concerto and his piano concertos have been recorded, demonstrating a style which is, unsurprising due to his connection to Beethoven, somewhere between those of the Classical and early Romantic eras
1841 Bertrand Barère a French politician, freemason, journalist, and one of the most notorious members of the National Convention during the French Revolution.
1843 Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark the daughter of Queen Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. Though officially regarded as the daughter of King Christian VII, it is widely accepted that her biological father was Johann Friedrich Struensee, the king’s royal physician and de facto regent of the country at the time of her birth. She was referred to sometimes as "la petite Struensee"; this did not, however, have any effect on her position
1847 Archduke Joseph Palatine of Hungary the Palatine of Hungary from 1796 to 1847. He was the seventh son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Louisa of Spain
1853 Theophilos Kairis a Greek priest, philosopher and revolutionary. He was born in Andros, Cyclades, Ottoman Greece, as a son of a distinguished family
1854 Fructuoso Rivera an Uruguayan general and patriot who assisted in the efforts to force Brazilians out of the Banda Oriental.