Born on January 14

38 Nero Claudius Drusus a Roman politician and military commander. He was a patrician Claudian on his legal father's side but his maternal grandmother was from a plebeian family. He was the son of Livia Drusilla and the legal stepson of her second husband, the Emperor Augustus. He was also brother of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Claudius, paternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero
83 Mark Antony a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
771 Constantine VI Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797.
1131 Valdemar I of Denmark King of Denmark from 1157 until his death in 1182.
1273 Joan I of Navarre the daughter of King Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and also served as queen consort of France.
1451 Franchinus Gaffurius an Italian music theorist and composer of the Renaissance. He was an almost exact contemporary of Josquin des Prez and Leonardo da Vinci, both of whom were his personal friends. He was one of the most famous musicians in Italy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries
1477 Hermann of Wied the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne from 1515 to 1546.
1507 Catherine of Austria Queen of Portugal Queen of Portugal as wife of King John III, and regent during the minority of her grandson, King Sebastian, from 1557 until 1562.
1552 Alberico Gentili an Italian jurist. He left Italy due to his Protestant faith, travelled in Central Europe, and emigrated to England. In 1580 he became regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford. He was one of the first writers on public international law
1615 John Biddle (Unitarian) an influential English nontrinitarian, and Unitarian. He is often called "the Father of English Unitarianism"
1683 Gottfried Silbermann a German builder of keyboard instruments. He built harpsichords, clavichords, organs, and fortepianos; his modern reputation rests mainly on the latter two
1684 Jean-Baptiste van Loo a French subject and portrait painter.
1684 Johann Matthias Hase a German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer.
1699 Jakob Adlung a German organist, teacher, instrument maker, music historian, and music theorist.
1700 Picander the pseudonym of Christian Friedrich Henrici , a German poet and librettist for many of the cantatas which Johann Sebastian Bach composed in Leipzig. Henrici studied law at Wittenberg and Leipzig. He started writing to supplement his income, and continued to write even after he had developed a career as a civil servant
1702 Emperor Nakamikado the 114th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1705 Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier a French sailor, explorer, and governor of the Mascarene Islands.
1730 William Whipple a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire.
1739 Feliks Oraczewski a Polish writer, educational and political activist.
1741 Benedict Arnold a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York , overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River , and planned to surrender it to the British forces. After the plan was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general
1751 Corona Schröter a German musician best known as a singer. She also composed songs, setting texts by Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to music
1762 Pierre-Édouard Lémontey a French lawyer, politician, scholar and historian.
1767 Maria Theresa of Austria (1767–1827) born an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Tuscany. She was later Queen of Saxony as the second wife and consort of King Anthony of Saxony
1770 Adam Jerzy Czartoryski a Polish-Lithuanian noble, statesman and author. He was the son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming
1771 Jean Reynier Louis Ebénézer Reynier rose in rank to become a French army general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. He led a division under Napoleon Bonaparte in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria. During the Napoleonic Wars he continued to hold important combat commands, eventually leading an army corps during the Peninsular War in 1810-1811 and during the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1812-1813
1773 William Amherst 1st Earl Amherst a British diplomat and colonial administrator. He was Governor-General of India between 1823 and 1828
1780 Pierre Jean Robiquet a French chemist. He laid founding work in identifying amino acids, the fundamental bricks of proteins. He did this through recognizing the first of them, asparagin, in 1806, in the industry's adoption of industrial dyes, with the identification of alizarin in 1826, and in the emergence of modern medications, through the identification of codeine in 1832, a powerful molecule today of widespread use with analgesic and antidiarrheal properties
1780 Henry Baldwin (judge) an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 18, 1830, to April 21, 1844.
1781 Henry Fynes Clinton an English classical scholar and chronologist.
1782 Carl Ferdinand Langhans a Prussian architect with a special interest in theatre architecture.
1790 Alexander von Lüders a Russian general and Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland.
1792 Christian Julius de Meza the commander of the Danish army during the 1864 Second Schleswig War. De Meza was responsible for the withdrawal of the Danish army from the Danevirke, an event which shocked the Danish public and resulted in the loss of his command
1793 John C. Clark a United States Representative from New York.
1794 Valentín Canalizo a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican-American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca
1798 Johan Rudolph Thorbecke a Dutch politician and statesman of Liberal signature, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century.
1800 Ludwig Ritter von Köchel an Austrian musicologist, writer, composer, botanist and publisher. He is best known for cataloguing the works of Mozart and originating the 'K-numbers' by which they are known
1801 Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart a French botanist. He was the son of the geologist Alexandre Brongniart and grandson of the architect, Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart. Brongniart's pioneering work on the relationships between extinct and existing plants has earned him the title of father of paleobotany. His major work on plant fossils was his Histoire des végétaux fossiles. He wrote his dissertation on the Buckthorn family , an extant family of flowering plants, and worked at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris until his death. In 1851, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Brongn. when citing a botanical name
1802 Karl Lehrs a German classical scholar.
1806 Matthew Fontaine Maury an American astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.
1808 Manuel Jimenes a Cuban born military figure and politician in the Dominican Republic. He served as the second President of the Dominican Republic from September 8, 1848 until May 29, 1849. Prior to that he served as the country's Minister of War and Marine Affairs
1812 Karl Graedener a German composer.
1816 Thilo Irmisch a 19th-century German botanist.
1818 Ole Jacob Broch a Norwegian mathematician, physicist, economist and politician. Broch was born in Fredrikstad, the son of war commissary Johan Jørgen Broch and Jensine Laurentze Bentzen. He showed a talent for mathematics at an early age, and after studies in Christiania , he travelled abroad. Through studies in Paris, Berlin and Königsberg, he developed an interest also for optics and statistics
1818 Zachris Topelius a Swedish-speaking Finnish author, journalist, historian, and rector of the University of Helsinki who wrote novels related to Finnish history in Swedish.
1819 Dimitrie Bolintineanu a Romanian poet , diplomat, politician, and a participant in the revolution of 1848. He was of Macedonian Aromanian origins. His many poems, of nationalist overtone, fueled emotions during the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia
1819 Fabio Campana an Italian composer, opera director, conductor, and singing teacher who composed eight operas which premiered between 1838 and 1869. He was born in Livorno, the city where his first two operas premiered, but in the early 1850s he settled in London. There he opened a famous singing school, conducted concerts, and continued his reputation as a prolific and popular composer of art songs and concert arias. His last opera, Esmeralda, premiered in Saint Petersburg in 1869, followed by London performances in 1870 with Adelina Patti in the title role. Campana died in London at the age of 63. Although his operas are no longer performed, his art songs can be heard on several modern recordings
1821 Salomon Hermann Mosenthal a writer, dramatist, and poet of German-Jewish descent who spent much of his life in Austria. He was also known for his opera libretti
1823 Charles III Duke of Parma Duke of Parma from 1849 to 1854.
1824 Vladimir Stasov probably the most respected Russian critic during his lifetime. He graduated from the School of Jurisprudence in 1843, was admitted to the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1859, and was made honorary fellow of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1900, together with his friend Leo Tolstoy
1826 Ivan Naumovich a priest, member of parliament, writer, and major figure in the Russophile movement in western Ukraine. His article Glimpse into the future was considered the most important manifesto of Galician Russophilism