Died on January 14

768 Fruela I of Asturias the King of Asturias from 757 until his death, when he was assassinated. He was the eldest son of Alfonso I and continued the work of his father
1044 Adelaide I Abbess of Quedlinburg Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim, as well as highly influential kingmaker of medieval Germany.
1092 Vratislaus II of Bohemia the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085. The royal title was merely a lifetime grant from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, however, and was not hereditary. Before being raised to the royal dignity, he had ruled Bohemia as duke since 1061
1163 Ladislaus II of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia between 1162 and 1163, having usurped the crown from his nephew, Stephen III.
1236 Saint Sava a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law and literature, and a diplomat. Sava was born Rastko Nemanjić , the youngest son of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja , and ruled the appanage of Hum briefly in 1190–1192. He became a monk in his youth, receiving the monastic name Sava , subsequently founding the monasteries of Hilandar on Mount Athos, and Žiča. In 1219 he was recognized as the first Archbishop of Serbs, by the Patriarch of Constantinople, and in the same year he authored the oldest known constitution of Serbia, Zakonopravilo, thus securing full independence; both religious and political. Sava heavily influenced Serbian medieval literature
1301 Andrew III of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia between 1290 and 1301. His father, Stephen the Posthumous, was the son of Andrew II of Hungary, but his brothers considered him a bastard. Andrew grow up in Venice. He first arrived in Hungary upon the invitation of a rebellious baron, Ivan Kőszegi in 1278, but achieved nothing against Ladislaus IV
1331 Odoric of Pordenone an Italian late-medieval Franciscan friar and missionary explorer. His account of his visit to China was an important source for the account of John Mandeville; many of the incredible reports in Mandeville have proven to be garbled versions of Odoric's eyewitness descriptions
1348 Sesson Yūbai a Japanese Zen Buddhist monk of the Rinzai sect. This priest and poet who is considered "the first important poet of the Five Mountains
1555 Jacques Dubois a French anatomist in Paris.
1568 Nicolaus Olahus the Archbishop of Esztergom, Primate of Hungary, and a distinguished Roman Catholic prelate.
1577 Jakob Bagge a Norweigan born Swedish admiral who fought for Sweden in the Count's Feud of 1534-1536 and the Northern Seven Years' War of 1563-1570. He also took part in the suppression of the rebellion of Nils Dacke. By the 1550s, Bagge was considered the most experienced of Sweden's admirals. He was the son of Norweigan nobleman Thord Olofsson Bagge and his wife Ingeborg Jakobsdotter
1640 Thomas Coventry 1st Baron Coventry a prominent English lawyer, politician and judge during the early 17th century.
1648 Caspar Barlaeus a Dutch polymath and Renaissance humanist, a theologian, poet, and historian.
1664 Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans born a Princess of France and was the Duchess of Savoy as the first wife of Charles Emmanuel She was a first cousin of Louis XIV as well of her husband. She was the shortest Savoyard consort dying at the age of fifteen, childless
1676 Francesco Cavalli an Italian composer of the early Baroque period. His real name was Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni, but he is better known by that of Cavalli, the name of his patron Federico Cavalli, a Venetian nobleman
1679 Jacques de Billy a French Jesuit mathematician. Born in Compiègne, he subsequently entered the Society of Jesus. From 1629 to 1630, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit College at Pontà Mousson. He was still studying theology at this time. From 1631 to 1633, Billy taught mathematics at the Jesuit college at Rheims. From 1665 to 1668 he was professor of mathematics at the Jesuit college at Dijon. One of his pupils there was Jacques Ozanam. Billy also taught in Grenoble. He also served as rector of a number of Jesuit Colleges in Châlons, Langres and in Sens
1701 Tokugawa Mitsukuni a prominent daimyo who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. He was the third son of Tokugawa Yorifusa and succeeded him, becoming the second daimyo of the Mito domain
1729 John William III Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
1742 Edmond Halley best known for computing the orbit of the eponymous Halley's Comet. He was the second Astronomer Royal in Britain, succeeding John Flamsteed
1744 Charles-Hubert Gervais a French composer of the Baroque era. The son of a valet to King Louis XIV's brother, Monsieur, Gervais was born at the Palais Royal in Paris and probably educated by Monsieur's musical intendants, Jean Granouillet de Sablières and Charles Lalouette. He worked as a musician for the Duc de Chartres, the future regent of France. In 1701, he married Françoise du Vivier. In 1721 he was named sous-maître de musique at the Chapelle royale along with André Campra, Nicolas Bernier and Michel Richard Delalande. Gervais composed sacred music and operas, including two tragédies en musique
1753 George Berkeley an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism". This theory denies the existence of material substance and instead contends that familiar objects like tables and chairs are only ideas in the minds of perceivers, and as a result cannot exist without being perceived. Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism
1766 Frederick V of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1746 until his death, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. "Prudentia et Constantia" was the motto he chose for his reign
1772 Princess Mary of Great Britain the second-youngest daughter of King George II and Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel as the wife of Landgrve Frederick II.
1776 Edward Cornwallis a British military officer who was the first Governor of Nova Scotia at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He later served as the Governor of Gibraltar
1786 Meshech Weare an American farmer, lawyer and revolutionary statesman from Seabrook and Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. He served as the first President of New Hampshire from 1776 to 1785
1786 Michael Arne an English composer, harpsichordist, organist, singer, and actor. He was the son of the composer Thomas Arne and the soprano Cecilia Young, a member of the famous Young family of musicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Like his father, Arne worked primarily as a composer of stage music and vocal art song, contributing little to other genres of music. He wrote several songs for London's pleasure gardens, the most famous of which is Lass with the Delicate Air. A moderately prolific composer, Arne wrote nine operas and collaborated on at least 15 others. His most successful opera, Cymon , enjoyed several revivals during his lifetime and into the early nineteenth century
1801 Sir George Staunton 1st Baronet an employee of the East India Company and a botanist.
1813 William Marlow an English landscape and marine painter and etcher.
1814 Charles Bossut a French mathematician and confrère of the Encyclopaedists. He was born at Tartaras, Loire, and died in Paris
1817 Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny a French composer and a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.
1820 Princess Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark the Electress of Hesse-Kassel.
1821 Jens Zetlitz a Norwegian priest and poet.
1823 Ernst von Rüchel a Prussian general who led an army corps in a crushing defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Jena on 14 October 1806. He commanded troops from the Kingdom of Prussia in several battles during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 and 1794. Afterward he held various appointments as a diplomat and a military inspector. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars he held an important army command but has been criticized for his actions at Jena. Wounded, he managed to escape the French pursuit, but never commanded troops in combat again
1823 Athanasios Kanakaris a Greek politician. He fought in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire
1825 George Dance the Younger an English architect and surveyor and a portraitist. The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance the Elder, he came from a family of architects, artists and dramatists. He was described by Sir John Summerson as "among the few really outstanding architects of the century", but few of his buildings remain
1831 Henry Mackenzie a Scottish lawyer, novelist and miscellaneous writer. He was also known by the sobriquet "Addison of the North."
1833 Seraphim of Sarov one of the most renowned Russian monks and mystics in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is generally considered the greatest of the 19th century startsy. Seraphim extended the monastic teachings of contemplation, theoria and self-denial to the layperson. He taught that the purpose of the Christian life was to acquire the Holy Spirit. Perhaps his most popular quotation amongst Orthodox believers is "Acquire a peaceful spirit, and thousands around you will be saved."
1835 Louis Partouneaux led an infantry division during the First French Empire of Napoleon. He joined the army of the First French Republic in 1791 and fought the Sardinians. He served at Toulon in 1793 and at Rivoli and Salorno in 1797. He fought at Verona and Magnano in 1799 and received promotion to general officer. At Novi later that year he was wounded and captured
1845 Dimitri Gruzinsky a Georgian prince of the House of Bagrationi, the youngest son of Prince Iulon of Georgia and his wife, Princess Salome née Amilakhvari.
1848 Robert Adamson (photographer) a Scottish chemist and pioneer photographer at Hill & Adamson. He is best known for his pioneering photographic work with David Octavius Hill and producing some 2500 calotypes, mostly portraits, within 5 years after being hired by Hill in 1843, before his life was cut short
1856 Janko Drašković a Croatian national reformer, politician and poet. He was a member of the Drašković family, one of the oldest Croatian noble families
1857 Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst a German entomologist, herpetologist and zoologist.
1858 Mykhajlo Levitsky the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1816 until his death in 1858 and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
1865 Marie-Anne Libert a Belgian botanist and mycologist. She was one of the first women plant pathologists. She is sometimes referred to as "Anne-Marie Libert"
1866 Giovanni Gussone an Italian academic and botanist, remembered for his work in plant taxonomy and his research of Sicilian flora.
1867 Victor Cousin a French philosopher. He was a proponent of Scottish Common Sense Realism and had an important influence on French educational policy
1867 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy
1869 Moritz Ludwig Frankenheim a German physicist, geographer, and crystallographer.
1872 Greyfriars Bobby a Skye Terrier who became known in 19th-century Edinburgh for supposedly spending 14 years guarding the grave of his owner until he died himself on 14 January 1872. The story continues to be well known in Edinburgh, through several books and films, and a prominent commemorative statue and nearby graves act as a tourist attraction
1874 Johann Philipp Reis a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone