Born on January 15

1096 Theodora Komnene Angelina a Byzantine noblewoman, being the fourth daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. She married admiral Constantine Angelos, by whom she had seven children. Byzantine emperors Alexios III Angelos and Isaac II Angelos were her grandsons, thereby making her an ancestress of the Angelos dynasty
1151 Elias II Count of Maine the younger son of Fulk V of Anjou and his first wife, Eremburga, daughter of Elias I of Maine. There is debate as to whether he was ever count of Maine
1208 Pierre de Castelnau born in the diocese of Montpellier.
1292 Joan II Countess of Burgundy the eldest daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, and Mahaut, Countess of Artois, and was Queen of France as the wife of Philip V of France.
1432 Afonso V of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa
1462 Edzard I Count of East Frisia count of East Frisia from 1491 till his death in 1528.
1481 Ashikaga Yoshizumi the 11th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1494 to 1508 during the Muromachi period of Japan. He was the son of Ashikaga Masatomo and grandson of the sixth shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori. Yoshizumi was first called Yoshitō , then Yoshitaka
1538 Maeda Toshiie one of the leading generals of Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century extending to the Azuchi-Momoyama period. His father was Maeda Toshimasa. He was the fourth of seven brothers. His childhood name was "Inuchiyo". His preferred weapon was a yari and he was known as "Yari no Mataza" , Matazaemon being his common name. The highest rank from the court that he received is the Great Counselor Dainagon
1622 Molière considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Among Molière's best-known works are Le Misanthrope , L'École des Femmes , Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur , L'Avare , Le Malade Imaginaire , and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
1647 Nathaniel Bacon (colonist) a colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died from dysentery.
1671 Abraham de la Pryme an English antiquary.
1678 François Gigot de la Peyronie a French surgeon who was born in Montpellier, France. His name is associated with a condition known as Peyronie's disease
1704 Giovanni Salvemini an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
1716 Philip Livingston an American merchant and statesman from New York City. He was a delegate for New York to the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1778, and signed the Declaration of Independence
1722 Herman Scholliner a German Benedictine theologian and historian.
1725 Pyotr Rumyantsev one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century. He governed Little Russia in the name of Empress Catherine the Great from the abolition of the Cossack Hetmanate in 1764 until Catherine's death 32 years later. Monuments to his victories include Kagul Obelisk in Tsarskoe Selo , Rumyantsev Obelisk on Basil Island , and a galaxy of Derzhavin's odes
1732 Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Suard a French journalist, translator and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment. He was born in Besançon and died in Paris
1747 John Aikin an English doctor and writer.
1754 Richard Martin (Irish politician) an Irish politician and campaigner against cruelty to animals. He was commonly known as "Humanity Dick", a nickname bestowed on him by King George He succeeded in getting the pioneering Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822, nicknamed 'Martin's Act', passed into British law
1754 Jacques Pierre Brissot a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. Some sources give his name as Jean Pierre Brissot
1759 Matsudaira Sadanobu Japanese daimyo of the mid-Edo period, famous for his financial reforms which saved the Shirakawa Domain, and the similar reforms he undertook during his tenure as chief senior councilor of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1787 to 1793.
1763 François-Joseph Talma a French actor.
1767 Jean Victor Tharreau a General of Division in the Army of the French Empire.
1773 Antoine-Léonard de Chézy a French orientalist.
1776 Prince William Frederick Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom.
1779 Jean Coralli a French dancer and choreographer and later held the esteemed post of First Balletmaster of the Paris Opera Ballet. He is best known for the creation of the Romantic ballet Giselle which he choreographed in tandem with another French dancer, Jules Perrot
1780 Hippolyte Bouchard a French Argentine sailor, pirate and corsair who fought for Argentina, Chile, and Peru.
1784 Theoklitos Farmakidis a Greek scholar and journalist. He was a notable figure of the Modern Greek Enlightenment
1785 William Prout an English chemist, physician, and natural theologian. He is remembered today mainly for what is called Prout's hypothesis
1787 William Baxter (Oxford Botanic Garden curator) a British botanist, author of British Phaenogamous Botany and appointed curator of the Oxford Botanic Garden in 1813.
1791 Franz Grillparzer chiefly known for his dramas. He also wrote the oration for Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral
1793 Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller an Austrian painter and writer. Waldmüller was one of the most important Austrian painters of the Biedermeier period
1795 Alexander Griboyedov a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer. He is recognized as homo unius libri, a writer of one book, whose fame rests on the verse comedy Woe from Wit or The Woes of Wit. He was Russia's ambassador to Qajar Persia, where he and all the embassy staff were massacred by an angry mob
1796 Pavel Liprandi a Russian soldier who took part in the Crimean War.
1798 Thomas Crofton Croker an Irish antiquary.
1801 Josef Eduard Teltscher an Austrian painter and lithographer. He was one of the best Viennese portrait lithographers and watercolourists of the first half of the nineteenth century in Central Europe, and as a miniaturist, according to his contemporaries, he was an no less than Moritz Daffinger himself
1803 Marjorie Fleming a Scottish child writer and poet.
1803 Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff a German instrument maker who commercialised the induction coil.
1803 William Starling Sullivant a US bryologist.
1807 Hermann Burmeister a German Argentine zoologist, entomologist, herpetologist, and botanist. He was born in Stralsund and died in Buenos Aires
1809 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon a French politician, the founder of Mutualist philosophy, an economist and a socialist. He was the first person to declare himself an anarchist and is among its most influential theorists. He is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism". He became a member of the French Parliament after the revolution of 1848, whereafter he referred to himself as a federalist
1812 Peter Christen Asbjørnsen a Norwegian writer and scholar. He and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe were collectors of Norwegian folklore. They were so closely united in their lives' work that their folk tale collections are commonly mentioned only as "Asbjørnsen and Moe"
1813 Yvon Villarceau a French astronomer, mathematician, and engineer.
1814 Ludwig Schläfli a Swiss mathematician, specialising in geometry and complex analysis who was one of the key figures in developing the notion of higher-dimensional spaces. The concept of multidimensionality has come to play a pivotal role in physics, and is a common element in science fiction
1815 William Bickerton a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement after the 1844 succession crisis. In 1862, Bickerton became the founding president of the church now known as The Church of Jesus Christ , which is one of many churches that claim to be a continuation of the Church of Christ founded by Joseph Smith, in 1830
1815 Sergey Durov a Russian poet, translator, writer, and political activist. A member of the Petrashevsky Circle and later the leader of his own underground group of intellectuals, Durov was arrested in 1849, spent 8 months in the Petropavloskaya Fortress, followed by 4 years in Omsk prison
1816 Marie Lafarge a Frenchwoman who was convicted of murdering her husband by arsenic poisoning in 1840. Her case became notable, because it was one of the first trials to be followed by the public through daily newspaper reports, and because she was the first person convicted largely on direct forensic toxicological evidence. However, questions about her guilt had divided French society to the extent that it is often compared to the better-known Dreyfus affair
1821 Lafayette McLaws a United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He served at Antietam and Fredericksburg, where Robert Lee praised his defense of Marye's Heights, and at Gettysburg, where his division made successful assaults through the Peach Orchard and Wheatfield, but was unable to dislodge Union forces from Cemetery Ridge. After the Knoxville Campaign, he was court-martialed for inefficiency, though this was overturned for procedural reasons. Finally he was sent to his native Georgia to resist Sherman's March to the Sea, but had to retreat through the Carolinas, losing many men through desertion, and is presumed to have surrendered with Joseph Johnston in April 1865
1822 Hubert Salentin a German painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.
1824 Marie Duplessis a French courtesan and mistress to a number of prominent and wealthy men. She was the inspiration for Marguerite Gautier, the main character of La Dame aux Camélias by Alexandre Dumas the younger, one of Duplessis' lovers. Much of what is known about her has been derived from the literary persona and contemporary legends