Died on January 15

69 Galba Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors
570 Íte of Killeedy an early Irish nun and patron saint of Killeedy. She was known as the "foster mother of the saints of Erin". The name "Ita" was conferred on her because of her saintly qualities. Her feast day is 15 January
584 Saint Maurus O.S.B. was the first disciple of Benedict of Nursia. He is mentioned in Gregory the Great's biography of the latter as the first oblate; offered to the monastery by his noble Roman parents as a young boy to be brought up in the monastic life. Four stories involving Maurus recounted by Gregory formed a pattern for the ideal formation of a Benedictine monk. The most famous of these involved Maurus's rescue of Saint Placidus, a younger boy offered to Benedict at the same time as Maurus. The incident has been reproduced in many medieval and Renaissance paintings
849 Theophylact (son of Michael I) the eldest son of the Byzantine emperor Michael I Rhangabe and grandson, on his mother's side, of Nikephoros He was junior co-emperor alongside his father for the duration of the latter's reign, and was tonsured, castrated, and exiled to Plate Island after his overthrow.
1249 Archambaud IX of Bourbon a ruler of Bourbonnais in the modern region of Auvergne, France.
1373 Stracimir Balšić a Lord of Zeta, alongside his two brothers Đurađ I and Balša II, in 1362–1372. The Balšić family took over Zeta, a Serbian province, by 1362, during the fall of the Serbian Empire. Stracimir took monastic vows and died in 1373. He left three sons, one of whom later became the Lord of Zeta
1422 Charlotte of Bourbon Queen of Cyprus the Queen consort of Cyprus and titular Queen consort of Armenia and Jerusalem through her marriage to King Janus of Cyprus. She was his second wife and the mother of his six legitimate children, which included King John II and Anne de Lusignan. It was Charlotte's influence which was instrumental in the revival of French culture at the royal court in Nicosia
1569 Catherine Carey chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I, who was her first cousin.
1597 Juan de Herrera a Spanish architect, mathematician and geometrician.
1615 Virginia de' Medici an illegitimate daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Camilla Martelli. She was the Duchess of Modena and Reggio by marriage to Cesare d'Este, Duke of Modena
1623 Paolo Sarpi a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict and its war with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft." Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent , was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph
1648 Francis Ferdinand de Capillas a Spanish Dominican friar who went as a missionary to Asia. He died in China as a martyr. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II on October 1, 2000, as one of the 120 Martyrs of China
1672 John Cosin an English churchman.
1679 Pierre Lambert de la Motte a French bishop. He was a founding member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and became a missionary in Asia
1683 Philip Warwick the son of Thomas Warwick, or Warrick, a musician.
1684 Caspar Netscher a Dutch portrait and genre painter. He was a master in depicting oriental rugs, silk and brocade and introduced an international style to the Northern Netherlands
1684 Alvise Contarini the 106th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on August 26, 1676 until his death seven and a half years later. He was the eighth and final member of the House of Contarini to serve as Doge of Venice
1695 François-Henri de Montmorency duc de Luxembourg a French general, marshal of France, famous as the comrade and successor of the great Condé.
1719 Tikhon Streshnev a Russian boyar and statesman during the reign of Peter I of Russia, one of the first members of the Governing Senate and the first governor of Moscow after the post was reformed by Peter. Several noted historians have suggested—citing the extreme height of both Peter and Tikhon—that Streshnev was the czar's actual, biological father
1765 Carlmann Kolb a German priest, organist, and composer.
1775 Giovanni Battista Sammartini an Italian composer, oboist, organist, choirmaster and teacher. He counted Gluck among his students, and was highly regarded by younger composers including Johann Christian Bach. It has also been noted that many stylizations in Joseph Haydn's compositions are similar to those of Sammartini, although Haydn denied any such influence. Sammartini is especially associated with the formation of the concert symphony through both the shift from a brief opera-overture style and the introduction of a new seriousness and use of thematic development that prefigure Haydn and Mozart. Some of his works are described as galant, a style associated with Enlightenment ideals, while "the prevailing impression left by Sammartini's work... he contributed greatly to the development of a Classical style that achieved its moment of greatest clarity precisely when his long, active life was approaching its end"
1781 Mariana Victoria of Spain an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven. Rejected due to her age, the marriage never took place and she was sent back to Spain. In 1729 she was married to the son of John V of Portugal. As the mother of Maria I of Portugal, she also acted as regent of Portugal during the last months of her husband's life and acted as advisor to her daughter in her reign
1788 Gaetano Latilla an Italian opera composer, the most important of the period immediately preceding Niccolò Piccinni.
1790 John Landen an English mathematician.
1810 Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. Her name was often spelt in English as Princess Dashkov
1813 Anton Bernolák a Slovak linguist and Catholic priest and the author of the first Slovak language standard.
1815 Emma Lady Hamilton best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of George Romney. She was born Amy Lyon in Ness near Neston, Cheshire, England, the daughter of Henry Lyon, a blacksmith who died when she was two months old. She was raised by her mother, the former Mary Kidd, at Hawarden, and received no formal education. She later changed her name to Emma Hart
1815 Mlle Raucourt a French actress. She was born in Nancy as the daughter of an actor, who took her to Spain. There she played in tragedy at the age of twelve. By 1770 she was back in France at Rouen, and her success as Euphmie in Belloy's Gaston et Bayard caused her to be called to the Comédie Française, where, in 1772, she made her debut as Dido. She played all the classical tragedy parts to crowded houses, until the scandals of her private life and her extravagance ended her popularity
1819 Johann Jacob Roemer a physician and professor of botany in Zurich, Switzerland. He was also an entomologist
1833 Banastre Tarleton a British soldier and politician.
1835 Thérésa Tallien a French social figure during the Revolution. Later she became Princess of Chimay
1841 Friedrich Parrot a German naturalist and traveller, who lived and worked in what was then the Governorate of Livonia, a part of the Russian Empire.
1841 Arend Friedrich August Wiegmann a German zoologist and herpetologist born in Braunschweig.
1842 Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin a French botanist.
1855 Henri Braconnot a French chemist and pharmacist.
1858 Antoine Maurice Apollinaire d'Argout a French statesman, minister and governor of the Bank of France.
1863 David Rumph Jones a Confederate general in the American Civil War.
1864 Isaac Nathan an Anglo-Australian composer, musicologist, journalist and self-publicist, who ended an eventful career by becoming the "father of Australian music".
1865 Edward Everett an American politician, pastor, educator, diplomat, and orator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State. He also taught at Harvard University and served as its president
1866 Rudolf von Auerswald a German official who served as Prime Minister of Prussia during the Revolution of 1848. Later, during the ministry of Charles Anthony, Prince of Hohenzollern, he led the government in all but name
1866 Massimo d'Azeglio an Italian statesman, novelist and painter.
1872 Vincent Grimm a Hungarian chess master.
1876 Eliza McCardle Johnson the First Lady of the United States and the wife of Andrew Johnson, the 17th President of the United States.
1878 Carlo Blasis an Italian dancer, choreographer and dance theoretician. He is well known for his very rigorous dance classes, sometimes lasting four hours long. Blasis insisted that his students learn theories and definitions of dance steps. He trained all of Enrico Cecchetti's teachers and it is thought that Blasis's influence in his training is what led Cecchetti to create the Cecchetti method of ballet
1885 Antoni Edward Odyniec a Polish Romantic-era poet who penned the celebrated "Song of the Filaretes".
1889 Melchior Josef Martin Knüsel a Swiss politician from Lucerne, member of the Swiss Federal Council.
1891 John Wellborn Root an American architect who was based in Chicago with Daniel Burnham. He was one of the founders of the Chicago School style. One of his buildings was designated a National Historic Landmark; others have been designated Chicago landmarks and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1958 he received the AIA Gold Medal
1893 Fanny Kemble a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-nineteenth century. She was also a well-known and popular writer, whose published works included plays, poetry, eleven volumes of memoirs, travel writing and works about the theatre. In 1834 she married an American, Pierce Mease Butler, heir to cotton, tobacco and rice plantations on the Sea Islands of Georgia, and to the hundreds of slaves who worked them
1895 Stephen F. Chadwick an American Democratic politician who served as the fifth Governor of Oregon from 1877 to 1878. Governor Chadwick was the first person to obtain the governorship by way of the state's Line of Succession
1895 Lady Charlotte Guest an English translator and business woman. An important figure in the study of Welsh language and literature, she is best known for her pioneering translation from Welsh into English of several medieval tales to which she gave the name Mabinogion